Disputed Oil Production in Southern Sudan
by Kristina Bergmann
Neue Zurcher Zeitung (conservative), Zurich,
Switzerland, April 26, 2001
World Press Review July 2001
The Sudan People's Liberation Army has warned foreign oil
companies against continuing their operations in southern Sudan.
Human-rights organizations are also calling for a halt on oil
production. They argue that the petroleum revenues have enabled
the regime [of President Lt. Gen. Umar Hasan Ahmad al-Bashir]
to intensify the civil war it is waging.
According to the findings of a United Nations report published
recently, the forced oil production being undertaken by the regime
has only worsened the civil war in southern Sudan. In his report,
Gerhard Baum, a former German interior minister who recently toured
Sudan for the U.N., called on all foreign oil companies with operations
in Sudan to consider discontinuing them.
The army, according to eyewitness reports, forcibly clears
areas surrounding the oil wells and then destroys the houses and
villages to discourage the inhabitants from returning. This scorched-earth
policy allows production in existing fields to continue unimpeded
and allows new exploration to reach deep into southern Sudan.
Since Sudan began exporting oil just two years ago, the interest
foreign companies have shown in exploiting Sudan's wealth of mineral
resources has intensified.
The rebels of the Sudan People's Liberation Army (SPLA), who
have been fighting for the independence, or at least the autonomy,
of the South since 1983, have now threatened to attack foreign
oil workers and the production facilities themselves.
According to the SPLA, the Sudanese government spends one-third
of its oil income-which totals about US$500 million a year-subjugating
the South. The steady rise in revenues has allegedly led to increasingly
brutal military actions, particularly in the oil concession areas.
The SPLA, along with the National Democratic Alliance, a group
of organizations with which it is associated, stated when the
oil exports first began that they would not recognize the agreements
made by the Sudanese government with the foreign firms.
So far, the two state-owned companies, China National Petroleum
Corporation and Malaysia's Petronas, and the private Canadian
firm Talisman Energy have largely ignored the criticism voiced
by Sudanese opposition and human rights organizations. These three
companies, along with the Sudan National Petroleum Corporation,
were responsible for getting production started in southern Sudan.
Today they are producing 212,000 barrels a day. China also
constructed most of the 1,600-kilometer- [ca. 395 mile]-long pipeline
from the oil fields to the harbor in Port Sudan, and it built
a refinery north of Khartoum. Both serve the lucrative export
An explosion was set on the pipeline just weeks after it went
into operation in Sept. 1999. The attack was not carried out by
the SPLA, but by the Beja Council, an opposition group from northern
Some observers from the human rights organizations thus surmise
that the militarily strong SPLA has been receiving payments from
the foreign oil companies for its restraint.
According to a report by the British organization Christian
Aid, the Sudanese army has been reinforcing troop strength in
various areas over the last weeks and months.
The reason for the buildup is reportedly the startup of operations
in the eastern part of the Upper Nile province, as well as new
exploration in the Thar Jath field, south of the previous primary
production area near Bentiu.
While the Khartoum regime is busy in the southwest forming
the Arab Baqara tribes into armed militias, its great success
in Upper Nile has been winning over members of the Nuer tribe
to its scorched-earth policy. According to eyewitness reports,
villages have been bombarded and trees have been burned. Thousands
of inhabitants, mainly Nuer and Dinka nomads, have been forced
According to a U.N. report, at least 600,000 people in southern
Sudan are threatened with starvation this year. Khartoum maintains
that it is using oil production to smooth the way for the development
of the whole of southern Sudan.
The Swedish firm Lundin and OMV from Austria-aside from Talisman,
the most important Western oil companies doing business in southern
Sudan- adopt a similar tone. They claim to have made important
contributions to the development of an infrastructure for the
Talisman stated that what Sudan needs is not a relief effort,
but long-term development assistance. Lundin also defends itself
against the charge that it has made the civil war worse; it now
has its statements formulated by a public-relations agency. Still,
critics point out that the new streets are being used, aside from
the tanker trucks, mainly by the army.
The new schools and hospitals are open only to southern Sudanese
who support the Bashir regime, not to those siding with the rebels.
The fight for and against oil has allowed traditional intertribal
rivalry in the current production areas, especially between the
Dinka and the Nuer, to be transformed into blind hatred.
The South Sudan Relief Agency (SSRA), an assistance organization
headquartered in East Africa, which characterizes itself as independent
and nonpartisan, confirms the positive effect of the presence
of Western oil companies in the embattled territories.
It encourages Talisman and Lundin to stay. The withdrawal
of Talisman, Lundin, and OMV would thus be a loss, not for Khartoum,
but for the local population.