Bolivia Re-invents Democratic
by Judy Rebick, Rabble
November 16, 2009
On December 6, Bolivia will hold a general
election where Evo Morales, the first Indigenous President in
South America will no doubt be re-elected. His party, the MAS,
has recently released an election programme that Susan Harvie
has kindly summarized and translated. Bolivia is reinventing
democractic socialism. They are in the process of creating a
plurinational state with equal rights for all nations and people,
redistributing land, providing free health and education for everyone,
creating what they call a pluri-economy that includes public,
private, co-operative and communitarian. In four years of power
they have eliminated illiteracy, reduced extreme poverty by 6%,
insituted a senior's pension for the first time, nationalized
hydrocarbons and achieved a 6.5% economic growth. They are showing
that a government that acts in the interests of the majority really
can succeed and that an alternative is truly possible. The full
list of achievements and election platform for the next four years
PROGRAM OF THE MOVEMENT TOWARD SOCIALISM
- POLITICAL INSTRUMENT FOR THE SOVEREIGNTY OF THE PEOPLE (MAS
- IPSP)__BOLIVIA, COUNTRY IN THE LEAD
OUR ACHIEVEMENTS AND OUR PRINCIPLES
In almost 4 years of government, el MAS
1. Nationalized hydrocarbons:_o
In 3 years Bolivia earned 6.413 billion dollars. _o The oil
companies pay 73% of profits. _o In 2005, the 9 Departmental
Governments, the 327 Municipalities and the public Universities
received 1.2 billion bolivianos from the Hydrocarbon Taxes. In
2008, they received 4.476 billion bolivianos. _o 59,665 residential
natural gas connections._o Gas was sold at US$0.60 cents per
million British Thermal Units (BTUs) to Argentina. Today it is
sold at US$ 5 per million BTUs.
2. Five billion dollars in exports_o
Minerals: US$ 5.139 billion in 3 years. _o Mining royalties:
US$ 128 million.
3. Widened the electrical coverage
to more than 160,000 Bolivian homes. Saved, with the Energy Efficiency
Program, 63 megawatts of the forecast national consumption of
962 megawatts, with an annual rate of increase of 7 megawatts.
Distributed almost 8 million efficient light bulbs to 1,300,000
dwellings. With the Dignity Price, homes saved 25% of their bills
which benefited 634,528 people.
4. Gave title to 26 million hectares
which benefited 98,454 families.
5. Created 124,497 productive jobs
with loans with an annual interest of 6% for a term of 12 years
and a total of 454 million bolivianos.
6. Built 276 kms. of highways per year.
Created the Bolivian Administrator of Roads (ABC) and built 2,951
meters of bridges. Created the Bolivian Aviation (BOA) with 3
7. Nationalized the National Telephone
o Payment by the user for consumption
in seconds, not rounded up to minutes. _o National calls are
charged as local calls. _o There are 5 million users.
8. Operation Miracle, Juana Azurduy
bonus, budget for health, hospitals and ambulances. Reduced the
infant mortality rate from 54 per 1,000 live births to 50. Constructed
545 health establishments (391 of the first level and 154 of the
second level). Created 3,880 new budget items for health, 194%
with respect to previous governments. Performed free vision operations
for 425,000 people.
9. Eradicated Illiteracy_o Yes,
I Can: 824,000 literate people._o 52,000 people in post literacy
are continuing their studies from grade 1 to 5 of primary school._o
Juancito Pinto bonus decreased the student drop out rate from
5.3% to 2.5% in grades 1 through 8. _o Increased teachers'
salaries by 30%. _o Professionalized more than 4,000 temporary
teachers. _o Constructed 269 school buildings and installed
356 telecentres in the education units.
10. Reduced extreme poverty by 6%.
11. Water and Sewage for 821,000 people.
12. Dignity Pension for 687,000 old
13. Evo Acts Program: 2,387 projects.
14. Economic Growth of Bolivia: 6.15%.
15. International Reserves: $US 8
16. Public Investment: $US 1.8 billion
17. Reduced the Foreign Debt from $US
4.4 billion to $US 2.4 billion.
OUR 4 POLICY PILARS
1. Implement the New Political Constitution
of the State. _ o Democratic, Plurinational and Autonomous
Bolivia. _o Consolidate the Plurinational State. _o Consolidate
the Autonomies. _o Consolidate the social policies and the
2. Deepen the Productive Bolivia_o
Expand the National Economic Model_o Plural Economy: state,
private, cooperative, Communitarian.
3. Dignified Bolivia_o Improve the
redistribution of the wealth and the revenue._o Generate opportunities.
_o Improve the standard of living for everybody.
4. Sovereign Bolivia_o Construct
a country with our own identity and sovereignty
1. A Democratic Country with a New
Constitution_o Plurinational state with direct, representative
and communitarian democracy_o Citizen participation in decision
making_o Social control in public policies
2. Autonomy for everybody: complete
and true solidarity_o Departmental autonomies_o Regional
autonomies_o Municipal autonomies_o Indigenous, Original
Nation and Peasant autonomies
3. Industrial Leap and Plural Economy
to eradicate poverty_o Increase the Hydrocarbon reserves by
50% in areas of exploration and the exploitation of natural gas
from 41 to 70 million cubic meters. _o 100,000 Natural Gas
connections per year and conversion of 30,000 vehicles per year
to Propane. _o Store 214,152 cubic meters of diesel, 122,061
cubic meters of gasoline and 13,818 cubic meters of natural gas.
_o Refine 95,800 barrels per day of petroleum. _o Industrialize
the mining of iron, copper, tin and silver through the state owned
Mining Corporation of Bolivia (COMIBOL)_o Iron and Steel Complex
in Mutún to produce steel and install plants for the refining
of minerals. _o Industrialize lithium (Uyuni Salt Flats) to
produce light metals, batteries, glass and motors. _o Ecological
Diesel Plant (Tarija) to produce 15,000 barrels of diesel per
day. _o Urea and Ammonia Petrochemical Plant to produce agricultural
fertilizers (Chapare)._o Petrochemical Complex to produce plastics,
containers, coatings and pipes._o Methanol Plant to produce
biodiesel, additives, adhesives, ether and cellular batteries
(Villamontes, Tarija)._o Petrohouses Factory with PVC to produce
20 houses per day with 3 rooms: large room, kitchen and bathroom.
_o Centre for Investigation and Technological Innovation in
Hydrocarbons - Science and Technology.
4. New Productive Model with National
Companies_o Corporation of State Companies_o Paper Factory
(Cochabamba) to produce 100 metric tons per day_o Bolivia Cardboard
(Oruro)_o Cement Companies (Oruro and Potosi)_o Sugar Refineries
(Bermejo and San Buenaventura)_o Milk Factories (Oruro, La
Paz, Cochabamba)_o Bolivian Almond Company in Pando_o Consolidate
the aviation company (BOA)
5. Space Telecommunication: "Tupac
Katari" Satellite_o Bolivia, the 5th country in Latin
America with our own Satellite (with Brazil, Argentina, Mexico
and Venezuela)._o Space Sovereignty: Bolivian Space Agency._o
Access to world wide telecommunications._o Fixed and cellular
telephones and Internet in all of Bolivia. Reduction in communication
prices. _o Citizen information, education and security.
6. Road Revolution and a Country Integrated
by Highways_o Corridor I, East-West: to join the Atlantic
and Pacific Oceans (San Matías-Puerto Suarez-Oruro)_o
Corridor II, North-South: to join Trinidad, Santa Cruz and
Yacuiba with Paraguay and Argentina. _o Corridor III, West-North:
to join Desaguadero, La Paz and Guayaramerín with 3 secondary
roads: 1. Yucumo-Trinidad; 2. El Chorro-Porvenir-Cobija-Nereuda
Extrema; 3. La Paz-Huarina-Ixiamas-Porvenir. _o Corridor IV,
West-South: to join Desaguadero, La Paz, Oruro, Potosi, Tarija
and Bermejo with Argentina. _o Corridor V, South Central:
to join Cañada, Oruro, Villamontes, Tarija, El Puente and
Uyuni with Argentina, Chile and Paraguay. _o Connection of
the 9 departmental capitals with 4,076 kilometers of paved highways.
7. Modern Railways and Airports_o
Railroad connection, Santa Cruz-Cochabamba._o Interocean
Railway, Puerto Suárez-Arica-Antofagasta. Short connection,
Motacusito-Mutún. _o Train, Bala-El Alto-Oruro. _o
Urban Trains, La Paz-El Alto; Cochabamba-Quillacollo; Santa
Cruz-Plan 3000. _o Bolivian Aviation (BOA). Modernize TAM.
_o Modern Technology in Airport Terminals. _o International
Airports in 9 departments. _o Radar Systems in Viru Viru, El
Alto and Trinidad. _o Dignity International Airport in Chimoré._o
Airports in Copacabana (La Paz), Puerto Rico (Pando), Guayaramerín
and Rurrenabaque (Beni), San Ignacio de Velasco and Camiri (Santa
Cruz) and Uyuni (Potosi).
8. Bolivia Connected by Waterway to
the Atlantic_o Waterway, Mutún-Puerto Busch, 120 kilometers.
El Puquio-Paraguay River between the Santa Fe and Santa Rosa
Islands. _o Our own exit and transportation to the Atlantic
9. Bolivia, Producer and Exporter of
Electrical Energy_o Dignity Price. 25% saving in each poor
home. _o Energy Efficiency Program: 8 million electric light
bulbs and a saving of 63 megawatts. _o Reconstruct the National
Electricity Company (ENDE). _o Recuperate the electrical generators
at Guaracachi, Corani and Valle Hermoso. _o Bolivia consumes
1,000 megawatts per year. _o Cachuela Esperanza Hydroelectric
Station (Beni): 800 megawatts. _o Rositas Hydroelectric Station
(Rio Grande): 400 megawatts_o El Bala Hydroelectric Station
(La Paz): 1,600 megawatts_o Co-generation Project: Guabirá
SA (21 megawatts), Guaracachi SA (82 megawatts), Thermoelectric
Station ENDE Andina SAM (100 megawatts)._o Misicuni Hydroelectric
Centre to supply water to Cochabamba: 80 megawatts. _o San
José Project (Chapare): 120 megawatts. _o Miguillas
Project: 250 megawatts. _o Electrical Transmission Line:
Caranavi-Trinidad, Yucumo-San Borja-San Ignacio de Moxos. _o
Saving: US$ 266 million. Annual Profit: $US 1.286 billion.
Shifts the energy matrix from diesel to electric energy.
10. Made in Bolivia, for Bolivia and
the World_o Develop the internal market and exports. _o
Develop technological, worker and management capacities and dignify
work. _o Provide inputs for the productive apparatus.
11. Agroecological Bolivia: Equilibrium
with Mother Earth_o No large landed estates and no serfdom.
_o Expropriate unproductive lands and donate to peasant and
Indigenous Peoples' communities. _o Title to all lands by 2013.
_o Food Security and Sovereignty Law_o Promote ecological,
organic farming and forest production and organic fertilizers.
_o Food Health and Vaccination Law. _o Fishing and Fish
Farming Law_o Revalue the Coca Leaf with social and productive
investments to eliminate poverty. _o Community Forestry and
integral management of the forest.
12. Universal Agricultural Insurance_o
Against losses to the farmers because of floods, droughts,
hail and frost. _o Will cover 650,000 productive units with
an area of 2,046,335 cultivated hectares.
13. Food at Just Prices for Everybody_o
Support to Food Production Company (EMAPA): Storage, transformation
and distribution. _o Oils and balanced foods factory. _o
Wheat milling industries. _o Storage centres for wheat, rice,
soy, beans and sunflower. _o Donation of agricultural inputs
to the producers. _o 280 Centres for the provision of food
at just prices. _o Food and Nutrition Plan for Childhood and
14. Inclusive, Democratic, Intercultural
and Productive Education_o Free Education with sufficient budget
and materials is a fundamental right. _o Education Revolution
sustained in our reality and for our life. _o Intercultural
Education and Education against violence against children and
women._o Community Education Centres with computers and Internet.
_o System of scholarships and incentives to study. _o Free
and immediate Bachelor Degrees. _o System of Technical, Technological,
Productive and Community Education. _o Specialized Technical
Universities and Indigenous Universities. _o Industrial Technological
Centres, Technological Institutes and Alternative Education Centres
attached to the strategic State companies.
15. Productive and Social Economy_o
Redistribute national revenue in favour of the sectors with
less revenue. _o Increase the Juancito Pinto (bonus to each
child in grades 1 through 8 who completes the school year), Dignity
Income (pension for senior citizens) and Juana Azurduy (bonus
to all pregnant women) bonuses._o Promote and improve revenues
16. Universal Health Insurance for
Everybody_o Free Universal Health Insurance for all ages and
all illnesses. _o Family, community and intercultural health.
17. Legalize the Ownership Rights of
18. One Hundred New Laws to Reorganize