In the Wake of Vaccines
Profound questions about the relationship
between the rise in chronic illness and the increase in childhood
by Barbara Loe Fisher
A Special Report for Mothering
Magazine, September/October 2004
America and America's children are in
the midst of an epidemic of chronic disease and disability. Today,
the Centers for Disease Control admits that one American child
in 166 has been diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder.(1) In
1970, autism affected four in 10,000 children.(2) By 1991, 5,000
autistic children were in the public school system; by 2001, that
number had grown to 94,000.(3)_Today, the CDC reports that 9 million
American children under 18 have been diagnosed with asthma.(4)
In 1979, asthma affected approximately 2 million children under
Today, nearly 3 million children in public
schools are classified as learning disabled. In 1976, there were
796,000 learning-disabled children in public schools.(6)_Today,
the CDC reports that 4 million children between the ages of 3
and 17 years have been diagnosed with ADHD.(7) The government
has only recently begun monitoring the numbers of children with
ADHD. In 1997, ADHD was reported to affect about 1.6 million elementary
Today, 206,000 Americans under the age
of 20 have type 1 diabetes, while type 2 diabetes is mysteriously
on the rise in children and adolescents. The CDC estimates that
1 in 400 to 500 American children and adolescents are now diabetic.(8)
Between 1945 and 1969, the incidence of diabetes in children aged
6 to 18 was approximately 1 in 7,100 children.(9)
Today, arthritis affects one in three
Americans, and about 300,000 American children have juvenile rheumatoid
arthritis.(10) Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis used to be so rare
that statistics were not kept until its recent rise in children.
_These brain and immune-system disorders plaguing millions of
the most highly vaccinated children in the world are preventing
too many of them from thriving, learning, and achieving in the
ways past generations of children have thrived, learned, and achieved.
And our nation is only beginning to understand the enormous price
tag that comes with the burden of chronic disease. In America,
the cost of health care for chronic disease is estimated to be
$425 billion a year, and it is rising.(11)
Yet the current costs to our society of
dealing with chronic illness pales in comparison with what it
will cost in the future, as these ill and disabled children grow
up and cannot produce for our society, but will instead require
lifelong financial support. Some of the more compromised children,
including severely autistic children, will need full-time custodial
care later in life as their parents age and cannot cope with their
adult children's 24-hour-a-day needs. In California, the minimum
estimated cost for the state to provide educational services to
an autistic child is $5,000 per year. However, the minimum annual
cost to provide full-time custodial care for an autistic adult
is between $30,000 and $40,000, for a staggering total lifetime
cost of between $2 and $5 million, depending on the severity of
It wasn't always like this. What is happening
to the health of our nation? Could it have anything to do with
exposing our children to more and more bacterial and live virus
vaccines in the first five years of life, when the brain and immune
system develop most rapidly? And could we be compromising the
integrity of our immune systems by eliminating all experience
of natural infection?
For more than 100 years, doctors have
been publishing articles in the medical literature about the brain-damaging
side effects of vaccines. The mother of all vaccines-the smallpox
vaccine, created by Britain's Edward Jenner in 1796-was found
to cause inflammation of the brain in one in 3,200 persons.(13)
After Pasteur began to inject patients with rabies vaccine in
the 1880s, it became obvious that brain inflammation was a side
effect that affected as many as one in 400 vaccinated persons.(14)
And by the 1960s and '70s, the medical literature was full of
reports that the pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine was causing
brain inflammation and death in babies getting the DPT shot.(15,16)
Doctors and public health officials were
talking to each other in the pages of medical journals about the
fact that vaccines could injure children's brains, but those being
vaccinated had no clue. Mothers taking their children to pediatricians
to be vaccinated placed a blind trust in the complete safety and
effectiveness of those vaccines.
From Healthy to Sick after Vaccination_I
trusted without questioning when I took my newborn to my pediatrician
for baby shots in the late 1970s. At the time, I considered myself
a woman very well-educated in science and medicine. My mother
and grandmother had been nurses, and I had become a medical writer
at a teaching hospital after graduating from college.
But I knew nothing about the risks of
vaccines, which I assumed were 100 percent safe and effective.
It never occurred to me that a medical intervention designed to
keep a healthy child healthy could ever harm that child. The concept
of risk associated with prevention is quite different from the
concept of risk associated with a cure.
Like many women who had babies in the
late 1970s, I was part of the natural childbirth movement. I attended
Lamaze classes to prepare myself for birth without medication,
and I knew I would breastfeed my baby. I took vitamins during
pregnancy, but never drank alcohol. I ate all the right foods,
and endured the occasional headache without reaching for an aspirin.
I was determined to do nothing that would harm the baby in my
womb, and do everything once my baby was born to give him the
best start he could get in life.
Except for a milk allergy that gave him
colic his first few months, my son, Chris, was a lively, contented
baby who always wanted to be around people and always seemed to
be doing things ahead of schedule. He had begun saying words at
seven months and speaking in full sentences at age two. At two
and a half years, he could identify the upper- and lower-case
alphabets and numbers up to 20. He could name every card in the
deck, and had created a card-identification game to entertain
himself and our family. He was beginning to recognize words in
the books we read together each day. One doctor told me he was
I remember that, for several weeks following
Chris's third DPT shot, when he was seven months old, there was
a hard, red, hot lump at the site of the injection. I called my
pediatrician's office and was told by the nurse that it was "a
bad lot of DPT vaccine," and not to worry about it. I asked
if I should bring Chris in for another shot, because I thought
she meant the "bad vaccine" might not have been strong
enough. I wanted my baby protected.
The day of his fourth DPT and OPV shots,
when he was two and a half, Chris was healthy except for slight
diarrhea left over from a 48-hour bout with the stomach flu he
had had at the beach three weeks earlier. He had just come off
of a round of antibiotics because, back then, antibiotics were
given for everything from flu to pneumonia. The pediatrician,
as well as the nurse preparing to give Chris his shots, said he
didn't have a fever, and that a little diarrhea didn't matter.
Several hours after we got home, I realized
how quiet it was in the house, and went upstairs to look for Chris.
I walked into his bedroom to find him sitting in a rocking chair
staring straight ahead, as if he couldn't see me standing in the
doorway. His face was white and his lips were slightly blue. When
I called out his name, his eyelids fluttered, his eyes rolled
back in his head, and his head fell to his shoulder. It was as
if he had suddenly fallen asleep sitting up.
This was unusual-I had never before seen
him fall asleep while sitting up. When I picked him up and carried
him to his bed, he was like a dead weight in my arms. I remember
thinking that maybe he was so tired because of what had happened
at the doctor's office, or maybe he was having a relapse of the
flu. Chris slept in his bed without moving for more than six hours,
through dinnertime, until I called my mom, who told me to try
to wake him.
I climbed into Chris's bed, lifted his
limp body, and cradled his back against my chest as I rocked us
both from side to side, calling out his name. I could feel him
struggling to awake. He began mumbling the word bathroom, but
he couldn't sit up on his own or walk. I picked him up and carried
him to the bathroom, where he had severe diarrhea and then, again,
fell asleep sitting up. He slept for 12 more hours.
This was 1980. I had been given no information
by my doctor about how to recognize a vaccine reaction.
In the following days and weeks, Chris
deteriorated. He no longer knew his alphabet or numbers, and couldn't
identify the cards he once knew so well. He would not look at
the books we had once read together every day. He couldn't concentrate
for more than a few seconds at a time. My little boy, once so
happy-go-lucky, no longer smiled. He was now listless and emotionally
fragile, crying or becoming angry at the slightest frustration.
Chris's physical deterioration was just
as profound. He had constant diarrhea, stopped eating, stopped
growing, and was plagued with respiratory and ear infections for
the first time in his life. The pediatrician told me it was just
a stage he was going through and not to worry about it. After
eight months of such deterioration, I took Chris to another pediatrician.
He was tested for cystic fibrosis and celiac disease, but the
tests came back negative. None of the doctors knew what was wrong
with my son, who had become an entirely different child physically,
mentally, and emotionally.
It would be another year before I stood
in my kitchen and watched the Emmy Award-winning NBC-TV documentary
DPT: Vaccine Roulette, produced by consumer reporter Lea Thompson
in spring 1982. I called the television station and asked to see
the medical research that had been used to document the show.
There, in the pages of Pediatrics, The New England Journal of
Medicine, The Lancet, and The British Medical Journal, I found
clinical descriptions of reactions to the pertussis vaccine that
exactly matched the symptoms I had witnessed my son have within
four hours of his fourth DPT shot.
I learned that, in 1981, the British National
Childhood Encephalopathy Study had reported a statistically significant
correlation between DPT vaccine and brain inflammation leading
to chronic neurological damage,(17) and that the UCLA-FDA study
published in Pediatrics in 1981 had found that one in 875 DPT
shots is followed within 48 hours by a convulsion or collapse/shock
reaction just like the one my son had suffered.(18) As I leafed
through more than 50 years of medical literature documenting the
fact that the complications of pertussis disease, or whooping
cough, were identical to the complications of whole-cell pertussis
vaccine, I was stunned. I felt betrayed by a medical profession
I had revered all my life.
The day Chris had his vaccine reaction,
he should have been in an emergency room, not unconscious in his
bed. As his mother, I should have had the information I needed
to recognize what was happening to him and take steps to deal
with it, including calling my doctor and, later, making sure the
reaction was recorded in his medical record and reported to the
vaccine manufacturer and health officials.
At age six, when Chris could not learn
to read or write, he was given an extensive battery of tests that
confirmed minimal brain damage that took the form of multiple
learning disabilities, including: fine motor and short-term memory
delays; dyslexia; auditory processing deficits; attention deficit
disorder; and other developmental delays. He was removed from
the Montessori school he attended and placed in a self-contained
classroom for the learning-disabled in public school, where he
stayed throughout elementary, junior, and high school, despite
repeated unsuccessful efforts by the schools to "mainstream"
As a teenager, Chris struggled to deal
with the big gaps between certain aspects of his intelligence-such
as his creativity and his unusual ability to think on an abstract
level, mixed with his inability to concentrate for long periods
of time or to organize and process certain kinds of information
he saw or heard. He was angry and frustrated because he couldn't
do what his peers could do, and was troubled both in and out of
school. After working in a warehouse and mail room following high
school, he eventually earned an associate degree in video and
film production at a school where a third of the students are
learning disabled and receive in-depth tutorial support. Chris
is now making his way in the world using his creative gifts. He
continually adjusts for the learning disabilities that will always
be a part of who he is, but that he is determined will not define
who he is.
The Vaccine Reaction Pattern Repeats Itself_My
son's vaccine reaction nearly a quarter century ago is identical
to those that Harris Coulter and I reported in 1985 in DPT: A
Shot in the Dark, and those that thousands of other mothers have
reported to the National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC) for
the past 22 years.(19) These mothers tell us how they took healthy,
bright children to doctors to be vaccinated and, within hours,
days, or weeks, their children got sick, regressed, and became
different children. Whether a child recovers, is left with minimal
brain damage as my son was, or is more severely injured-as was
the case with the children who were awarded nearly $2 billion
in compensation under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act
of 1986 (20)-a pattern of common experience emerges. This pattern,
repeated over and over in homes across America, has contributed
in no small way to why the issue of vaccine safety will not go
Mothers call the NVIC and describe how,
within days of vaccination, their babies run fevers; scream for
hours, fall into a deep sleep, and wake up screaming again; start
twitching, jerking, or staring into space as if they can't hear
or see; are covered with body rashes; become restless and irritable;
or have a dramatic change in eating or sleeping habits.
Others describe a gradual deterioration
in overall health, a picture that includes constant ear and respiratory
infections and onset of allergies, including asthma; unexplained
rashes; new sensitivity to foods such as milk; persistent diarrhea;
sleep disturbances that turn night into day and day into night;
loss of developmental milestones such as the ability to roll over
or sit up; loss of speech, eye-contact, and communication skills;
development of strange or violent behaviors that include hyperactivity,
biting, hitting, social withdrawal, and repetitive movements such
as flapping, rocking, and head banging. Older children and adults
complain of muscle weakness, joint pain, crippling headaches,
disabling fatigue, loss of memory, or being unable to concentrate
and think clearly.
Depending on the child and the specific
therapy interventions, there is either gradual full recovery or
the child is eventually diagnosed with various kinds of chronic
health problems. My son regressed after his DPT shot but stopped
just short of autism. Why? I don't know. Vaccine-induced brain
injuries appear to be on a continuum ranging from milder forms
such as ADD or ADHD and learning disabilities to autism-spectrum
and seizure disorders to severe mental retardation, all the way
to death. On this continuum, and often coinciding with brain dysfunction,
is immune-system dysfunction ranging from development of severe
allergies and asthma to intestinal bowel disorders, rheumatoid
arthritis, and diabetes.
Genetic and Biological Vulnerability_Many
of the parents who contact the NVIC report that their child suffered
previous vaccine-reaction symptoms that were written off by their
doctors as unrelated or unimportant. Others say their child was
sick at the time of vaccination, often on antibiotics. Still others
describe strong family histories of autoimmune disorders such
as thyroid disease, lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes,
and severe allergies to milk, pollen, medications, and vaccines.
Still other babies, especially those who die after vaccination,
were born premature, had difficult births, were underweight, or
had histories of health problems before receiving multiple vaccines.
How Many Vaccine-Injured Children Are
There?_But how many children have vaccine reactions every year?
Is it really only one in 110,000 or one in a million who are left
permanently disabled after vaccination? Former FDA Commissioner
David Kessler observed in 1993 that less than 1 percent of doctors
report adverse events following prescription drug use.(21) There
have been estimates that perhaps less than 5 or 10 percent of
doctors report hospitalizations, injuries, deaths, or other serious
health problems following vaccination. The 1986 Vaccine Injury
Act contained no legal sanctions for not reporting; doctors can
refuse to report and suffer no consequences.
Even so, each year about 12,000 reports
are made to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System; parents
as well as doctors can make those reports.(22) However, if that
number represents only 10 percent of what is actually occurring,
then the actual number may be 120,000 vaccine-adverse events.
If doctors report vaccine reactions as infrequently as Dr. Kessler
said they report prescription-drug reactions, and the number 12,000
is only 1 percent of the actual total, then the real number may
be 1.2 million vaccine-adverse events annually. _The larger unanswered
question that haunts every new vaccine mandate is: Has the repeated
manipulation of the immune system with multiple vaccines in the
first three years of life, when the interrelated brain and immune
systems develop most rapidly outside the womb, been an unrecognized
cofactor in the epidemics of chronic disease and disability plaguing
so many children today?
A Vacuum of Scientific Knowledge_When
you look at the possible biological mechanisms for vaccine-induced
neuroimmune dysfunction, including chronic inflammation, the scientific
picture is complicated by the presence of potentially toxic components
added to vaccines as stabilizers, preservatives, and adjuvants.
These include many substances-heavy metals such as mercury and
aluminum, yeast, monosodium glutamate (MSG), formalin, and antibiotics-that,
together with residual DNA and possible adventitious agent contamination
from animal and human cell substrates, have unknown biological
effects.(23) For example, the monkey virus SV40, which contaminated
oral polio vaccine given to American children until 1999, has
been found in children and adults suffering from bone, brain,
and lung cancers, as well as from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.(24)
There is an astonishing lack of basic
scientific knowledge about how viral and bacterial vaccines, given
in combination, act to disrupt brain and immune-system function
in the human body at the cellular and molecular levels.(25,26)
Pre-licensure studies conducted by industry to demonstrate the
safety of new vaccines rarely study large numbers of children
given the experimental vaccine in combination with other vaccines,(27)
and follow-up for serious health problems following vaccination
is limited to a few days or weeks.(28) For example, the flu vaccine
that the CDC recommends all healthy babies get has never been
studied for safety when given in combination with other vaccines.(29)
In addition, there have never been any
large, prospective, long-term studies comparing the long-term
health of highly vaccinated individuals versus those who have
never been vaccinated at all. Therefore, the background rates
for ADHD, learning disabilities, autism, seizure disorders, asthma,
diabetes, intestinal bowel disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, and
other brain and immune-system dysfunction in a genetically diverse
unvaccinated population remains unknown.
This vacuum of basic scientific knowledge
fatally compromises the statistical conclusions of every recent
epidemiological study conducted by government and industry to
try to prove that vaccines do not cause chronic health problems
such as autism. The recently released Institute of Medicine report
that denied a causal relationship between autism and vaccines
and called for an end to all research into vaccine-associated
autism relied almost exclusively on epidemiological studies.(30)
Researchers conducting epidemiological studies to estimate the
incidence of disease in vaccinated individuals often look at old
medical records to do their statistical analyses. But the scientific
truth about a vaccine's ability to cause chronic health problems
has not been determined with any degree of certainty because so
little research has ever been conducted into the biological mechanisms
involved in vaccine-induced brain and immune-system dysfunction,
and all of the participants in epidemiological studies are vaccinated.
It is possible that when all children
were exposed to only DPT and polio vaccines in the 1960s, a tiny
fraction of those genetically susceptible to responding adversely
to vaccination were affected. But with the addition of the combination
measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine to the routine vaccination
schedule in 1979, and then the Hib, hepatitis B, chickenpox, and
pneumococcal vaccines in the late 1980s and 1990s, far more of
the genetically vulnerable are now being brought into the group
of vaccine-adverse responders.
Government and industry refuse to investigate
the genetic and other biological high-risk factors for vaccine-induced
chronic health problems. But independent research is being conducted
at the M.I.N.D. Institute at UC Davis, and by other nongovernment,
nonindustry researchers around the world. Their research may well
eventually confirm that there is a critical interaction between
a child's genetic susceptibility to respond adversely to vaccination
and one or more cofactors, such as a coinciding illness or concurrent
exposure to medications or other environmental toxins while in
the womb or after birth.
A Primitive Inflammatory Response Gone
Wrong_However, the damaging effects of vaccines in the genetically
vulnerable is potentially only one part of the explanation of
why there has been an explosion of chronic disease in ours, the
most highly vaccinated population in the world. Mass vaccination
with multiple vaccines in early childhood has removed most natural
infection from the human experience. This human intervention is
only about 50 years old. When you consider the evolution of human
beings and our place in the natural order, an order that was created
long before Edward Jenner first came up with the idea of vaccination,
50 years is a very short period of time.
Humans and infectious microbes have coexisted
for as long as we have walked the earth, and the human immune
system has developed an efficient way of meeting the challenge
from viruses and bacteria. When infected with viruses, parasites,
and cancer cells, the body's first line of defense is for the
cellular, or "innate," part of the immune system to
mount an inflammatory response, which then signals the humoral,
or "learned," part of the immune system to produce anti-inflammatory
chemicals and antibodies that resolve inflammation so that healing
can take place.
"Babies are born with a very immature
cellular immune system," says Lawrence Palevsky, MD, a New
York pediatrician and cofounder of the Holistic Pediatric Association.
"Childhood viral infectious diseases like measles, mumps,
and chickenpox initially stimulate the cellular part of the immune
system, which leads to the production of the signs of inflammation-fever,
redness, swelling, and mucus. This cellular immune response stimulates
the humoral part of the immune system to produce anti-inflammatory
chemicals and antibodies that assist in recovery from these illnesses.
This natural process helps the cellular and humoral immune systems
mature. A healthy, mature immune system for children requires
an equal balance of cellular and humoral immune-system responses."
Palevsky points out that vaccination largely
bypasses the cellular immune system in favor of stimulating the
humoral part of the immune system. "Vaccination does not
mimic the natural infection process. Although vaccines stimulate
production of antibodies in an attempt to artificially induce
immunity to disease, chronic inflammation can be a by-product
of vaccination by disrupting the balance of cellular and humoral
immune-system responses, especially in those children genetically
predisposed to inflammatory conditions such as autoimmune disorders."
Philip Incao, MD, a holistic family-care
physician in Colorado, agrees: "Physically, health is about
balancing acute inflammatory responses to infection, which stimulate
one arm of the immune system, and chronic inflammatory responses
to infection, which stimulate the other arm of the immune system.
Overuse of vaccines to suppress all acute, externalizing inflammations
early in life can set up the immune system to respond to future
stresses and infections by developing chronic, internalizing disease
later in life."
Back to Nature: The Paradigm Shift_The
questions being raised about the wisdom of using large numbers
of vaccines to suppress or eradicate all infectious disease are
understandable in light of the fact that so many highly vaccinated
children and adults are chronically ill. However, the challenge
to our system of mass vaccination is also part of the move by
educated healthcare consumers away from a technology and a medical
model that many believe has failed. Intuitively, people in many
technologically advanced countries are becoming increasingly skeptical
about not only the safety of vaccines, but also the toxic properties
and overuse of prescription drugs and the risks of medical tests
and invasive surgeries.
Among the top ten causes of death in the
US are toxic reactions to correctly prescribed drugs, which make
more than 2 million Americans seriously ill every year and kill
106,000 more.(31) The realization that dentists have filled our
mouths with silver-mercury amalgams and doctors have injected
mercury-laced vaccines into our children's bodies are just two
examples of why people are beginning to distrust what doctors
and public health officials tell them to do.
A 1998 survey found that 39 million Americans
made more than 600 million visits to alternative healthcare practitioners
in 1997-more than to primary-care physicians.(32) These patients
paid most of the $21.2 billion costs out of pocket when insurance
plans would not reimburse them, citing a desire to "prevent
future illness from occurring" and "maintain health
and vitality." Healthcare professions including chiropractic,
naturopathy, homeopathy, acupuncture, and other modalities offering
a drug-free way to maintain health are becoming more popular as
people realize they are healthier when they take fewer drugs and
As a new model for staying well struggles
to replace an old model that has failed too many, a mighty battle
is taking place in the offices of pediatricians, who face increasingly
well-educated, independent-thinking parents who demand to be equal
partners in making healthcare decisions for their children. At
no time is that battle more fierce than when an articulate parent,
one who knows more than a pediatrician about vaccine risks, begins
to ask questions and demand answers instead of blindly trusting
and offering up a child for vaccination.
Educated parents, who suspect that their
children are genetically at risk for vaccine complications, are
challenging the utilitarian rationale adopted by public health
officials to justify forced vaccination. The ideas that everyone
has to get vaccinated for the "greater good," and that
it is acceptable for some children to be sacrificed for the welfare
of the rest, does not feel quite right when one-size-fits-all
vaccine policies end up targeting the genetically vulnerable as
The right to know and the freedom to choose
were the reasons I joined with Kathi Williams and other parents
of vaccine-injured children, who 22 years ago launched the organized
movement for vaccine safety and informed consent in this country.
I knew then that I wanted to work to empower other women who become
mothers to believe in and stand up for our right to make informed,
voluntary decisions about vaccination for the children we love
more than we ever thought we could love anyone.
When it comes to the complex job of raising
a child day to day, we mothers are on the front line. But when
we enter the often paternalistic world of science and medicine,
we are made to feel as if we are not smart enough, educated enough,
or rational enough to make our own good decisions about what is
best for the health and well-being of our children. It is in pediatricians'
offices, public health clinics, and hospital corridors where we
have been most conditioned to feel incapable and helpless to do
anything other than what we are told to do.
In reality, we are more than capable of
using our intelligence, our hearts, and our mothers' intuition
to demand to know the truth and make informed choices about any
medical intervention that carries a risk of injury or death for
our children. No one has more of a right to do this than we, the
life-givers, life defenders, and primary caretakers of our children's
Once you have gathered all the information
you can find about infectious diseases and vaccines and have spoken
to one or more healthcare professionals, you will know what to
do. Once you have made a vaccination decision for your child,
don't second-guess yourself. You have made an educated, conscious
choice, and no matter what happens, you have been the best mother
you can be. As mothers, it is all we can do.
Barbara Loe Fisher is cofounder
and president of the National Vaccine Information Center (NVIC).
She is the coauthor of the 1985 book DPT: A Shot in the Dark and
editor of The Vaccine Reaction newsletter, and has served on the
National Vaccine Advisory Committee (1988-1992), the Institute
of Medicine Vaccine Safety Forum (1995-1998), and the FDA Vaccines
and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (1999-2003).
NOTES_1. American Academy of Pediatrics,
Autism A.L.A.R.M. (January 2004).
2. California Department of Developmental
Services, 2003 DDS Autism Report, www.dds.ca.gov.
3. U.S. Department of Education, National
Center for Education Statistics: Digest of Education Statistics
4. B. Bloom et al., "Summary Health
Statistics for U.S. Children: National Health Interview Survey,
2001," National Center for Health Statistics, Vital and Health
Statistics Series 10, no. 216 (November 2003).
5. D. M. Mannino et al., "Surveillance
for Asthma: United States, 1960-1995," Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 47,
no. SS-1 (14 April 1998).
6. See Note 3.
7. See Note 4.
8. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
"National Diabetes Fact Sheet" (2003).
9. P. J. Palumbo et al., "Diabetes
Mellitus: Incidence, Prevalence, Survivorship and Causes of Death
in Rochester, Minnesota, 1945-1970," Diabetes 25, no. 7 (1
July 1976): 566-573.
10. Arthritis Foundation, www.arthritis.org.
11. C. Hoffman et al., "Persons with
Chronic Conditions: Their Prevalence and Costs," Journal
of the American Medical Association 276, no. 18 (13 November 1996):
12. K. Jarbrink, M. Knapp, "The Economic
Impact of Autism in Britain," Autism 5, no. 1 (1 March 2001):
13. E. B. Gurvich, "The Age-Dependent
Risk of Postvaccination Complications in Vaccinees with Smallpox
Vaccine," Vaccine 10, no. 2 (1 January 1992): 96-97.
14. T. Hemachudha et al., "Myelin
Basic Protein as an Encephalitogen in Encephalomyelitis and Polyneuritis
Following Rabies Vaccination," New England Journal of Medicine
316, no. 7 (12 February 1987): 369-374.
15. C. A. Hannik, "Major Reactions
After DPT-Polio Vaccination in the Netherlands," International
Symposium on Pertussis, Bilthoven. Symposium Series on Immunobiological
Standardization 13 (1969): 161-170.
16. M. Kulenkampff et al., "Neurological
Complications of Pertussis Inoculation," Archives of Disease
in Childhood 49, no. 1 (January 1974): 46-49.
17. R. Alderslade et al., "The National
Childhood Encephalopathy Study," in Whooping Cough: Reports
from the Committee on Safety of Medicines and the Joint Committee
on Vaccination and Immunization (London: HMSO, 1981).
18. C. L. Cody et al., "Nature and
Rates of Adverse Reactions Associated with DTP and DT Immunizations
in Infants and Children," Pediatrics 68, no. 5 (1 November
19. H. L. Coulter, B. L. Fisher, DPT:
A Shot in the Dark (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985).
20. VICP Monthly Statistics Report, www.hrsa.gov/osp/vicp/monthlystats_home.HTM.
21. D. A. Kessler, "Introducing MEDWatch:
A New Approach to Reporting Medication and Device Adverse Effects
and Product Problems," Journal of the American Medical Association
269, no. 21 (2 June 1993): 2765-2768.
22. R. T. Chen, B. Hibbs, "Vaccine
Safety: Current and Future Challenges," Pediatric Annals
27, no. 7 (July 1998): 445-455.
23. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
Vaccine Components, www.cdc.gov/node.do/id/0900f3ec8006587f.
24. D. Bookchin, J. Schumacher, The Virus
and the Vaccine (New York: St. Martin's Press, 2004).
25. Institute of Medicine, Adverse Effects
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