United Nations Convention
on the Prevention and Punishment
of the Crime of Genocide (1951)
The Contracting Parties,
Having considered the declaration made by the General Assembly
of the United Nations in its resolution 96 (1) dated 11 December
1946 that genocide is a crime under international law, contrary
to the spirit and aims of the United Nations and condemned by
the civilized world;
Recognizing that at all periods of history genocide has inflicted
great losses on humanity; and
Being convinced that, in order to liberate mankind from such
an odious scourge, international cooperation is required:
Hereby agree as hereinafter provided.
The Contracting Parties confirm that genocide, whether committed
in time of peace or in time of war, is a crime under international
law which they undertake to prevent and to punish.
In the present Convention, genocide means any of the following
acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a
national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such:
a. Killing members of the group;
b. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the
c. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life
calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or
d. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the
e. Forcibly transferring children of the group to another
The following acts shall be punishable:
b. Conspiring to commit genocide;
c. Direct and public incitement to commit genocide;
d. Attempt to commit genocide;
e. Complicity in genocide.
Persons committing genocide or any of the other acts enumerated
in article III shall be punished, whether they are constitutionally
responsible rulers, public officials or private individuals.
The Contracting Parties undertake to enact, in accordance
with their respective Constitutions, the necessary legislation
to give effect to the provisions of the present Convention and,
in particular, to provide effective penalties for persons guilty
of genocide or any of the other acts enumerated in article III.
Persons charged with genocide or any of the other acts enumerated
in article III shall be tried by a competent tribunal of the State
in the territory of which the act was committed, or by such international
penal tribunal as may have jurisdiction with respect to those
Contracting Parties which shall have accepted its jurisdiction.
Genocide and the other acts enumerated in article III shall
not be considered as political crimes for the purpose of extradition.
The Contracting Parties pledge themselves in such cases to
grant extradition in accordance with their laws and treaties in
Any Contracting Party may call upon the competent organs of
the United Nations to take such actions under the Charter of the
United Nations as they consider appropriate for the prevention
and suppression of acts of genocide or any of the other acts enumerated
in article III.
Disputes between the Contracting Parties relating to the interpretation,
application or fulfillment of the present Convention, including
those relating to the responsibility of a State for genocide or
any of the other acts enumerated in article III, shall be submitted
to the International Court of Justice at the request of any of
the parties to the dispute.
The present Convention of which the Chinese, English, French,
Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall bear the
date of 9 December 1948.