Office of Homeland Security
September 20, 2001: President Bush announces
the establishment of the Office of Homeland Security, and the
appointment of Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge in his Address
to a Joint Session of Congress and the American People.
"Today, dozens of federal departments
and agencies, as well as state and local governments, have responsibilities
affecting homeland security. These efforts must be coordinated
at the highest level. So tonight I announce the creation of a
Cabinet-level position reporting directly to me -- the Office
of Homeland Security. And tonight I also announce a distinguished
American to lead this effort, to strengthen American security:
a military veteran, an effective governor, a true patriot, a trusted
friend -- Pennsylvania's Tom Ridge. (Applause.) He will lead,
oversee and coordinate a comprehensive national strategy to safeguard
our country against terrorism, and respond to any attacks that
October 8, 2001: President Bush issues
Executive Order 13228 Establishing the Office of Homeland Security
and the Homeland Security Council.
October 8, 2001: Tom Ridge sworn in as
the first Director of the Office of Homeland Security.
March 21, 2002: Executive Order Establishing
the President's Homeland Security Advisory Council and Senior
Advisory Committees for Homeland Security.
Executive Order 13228 Establishing
the Office of Homeland Security and the Homeland Security Council
enumerates the mission and functions of the Office of Homeland
A summary of the President's Executive
The President's mission for the Office
of Homeland Security is "to develop and coordinate the implementation
of a comprehensive national strategy to secure the United States
from terrorist threats or attacks."
Section 3 of the President's Executive
Order sets out in detail the functions of the Office of Homeland
Security, which shall be "to coordinate the executive branch's
efforts to detect, prepare for, prevent, protect against, respond
to, and recover from terrorist attacks within the United States."
In performing many of its functions, the
Office is required to work with the Assistant to the President
for National Security Affairs, and with other Federal, State,
and local agencies, and private entities, as appropriate.
Section 3 provides that the Director of
the Office of Homeland Security shall have the power to:
(b) develop and review a National Strategy
(c) coordinate information collection,
analysis and sharing to detect threats of terrorism and activities
of terrorists within the United States, and prioritize requirements
for foreign intelligence collection. The Office shall:
facilitate information collection
by State and local government and private entities; "provide
[foreign intelligence] requirements and priorities to the Director
of Central Intelligence and other agencies"; audit
and ensure all executive departments' and agencies' technological
capabilities to collect intelligence; "coordinate
development of monitoring protocols and equipment for use in detecting
the release of biological, chemical, and radiological hazards";
and ensure dissemination and exchange of intelligence
and law enforcement information among the executive branch and,
where appropriate, promote exchange of such information
with and among state and local governments and private entities.
All executive departments and agencies
are required to make available to OHS "all information relating
to terrorist threats and activities within the United States."
(d) coordinate national efforts to prepare
for and mitigate the consequences of terrorist threats or attacks
within the United States, including:
review all federal emergency response
plans relating to terrorism within the United States;
coordinate domestic exercises and simulations designed to assess
and practice systems to respond to terrorism, and coordinate programs
and activities for training federal, state, and local employees
who would be called upon to respond to such a threat or attack;
coordinate national efforts to ensure public health preparedness
for a terrorist attack, including reviewing vaccination policies
and reviewing the adequacy of and, if necessary, increasing
vaccine and pharmaceutical stockpiles and hospital capacity;
coordinate federal assistance to state and local authorities
and NGOs to prepare for and respond to terrorism; implement
review and evaluation programs and standards for national preparedness
programs, including allocation of resources to implement
changes based on such evaluations; and ensure the readiness
and coordinated deployment of federal response teams to respond
to terrorist threats or attacks.
(e) coordinate efforts to prevent terrorist
attacks within the United States, including:
facilitate the exchange of information
among INS and customs agencies; ensure coordination among
such agencies to prevent the entry of terrorists and terrorist
materials and supplies into the United States and facilitate
removal of such terrorists from the United States, when
appropriate; coordinate efforts to investigate terrorist
threats and attacks within the United States; coordinate
efforts to improve the security of United States borders, territorial
waters, and airspace in order to prevent acts of terrorism within
the United States.
(f) coordinate efforts to protect the
United States and its critical infrastructure from the consequences
of terrorist attacks, including:
strengthen measures for protecting
energy production, transmission, and distribution services and
critical facilities; other utilities; telecommunications;
facilities that produce, use, store, or dispose of nuclear material;
and other critical infrastructure services and critical facilities
within the United States from terrorist attack;
coordinate efforts to protect critical public and privately owned
information systems within the United States from terrorist attack;
develop criteria for reviewing whether appropriate security
measures are in place at major public and privately owned facilities
within the United States; coordinate domestic efforts
to ensure that special events determined by appropriate senior
officials to have national significance are protected from
terrorist attack; coordinate efforts to protect transportation
systems within the United States, including railways, highways,
shipping, ports and waterways, and airports and civilian
aircraft, from terrorist attack; coordinate efforts to
protect United States livestock, agriculture, and systems for
the provision of water and food for human use and consumption
from terrorist attack; and coordinate efforts to
prevent unauthorized access to, development of, and unlawful importation
into the United States of, chemical, biological, radiological,
nuclear, explosive, or other related materials that have the potential
to be used in terrorist attacks.
(g) coordinate efforts to respond to and
promote recovery from terrorist threats or attacks within the
United States, including:
coordinate efforts to ensure rapid
restoration of transportation systems, energy production, transmission,
and distribution systems; telecommunications; other utilities;
and other critical infrastructure facilities after disruption
by a terrorist threat or attack; coordinate efforts to
ensure rapid restoration of public and private critical information
systems after disruption by a terrorist threat or attack;
work with the National Economic Council to coordinate efforts
to stabilize United States financial markets after a terrorist
threat or attack and manage the immediate economic and
financial consequences of the incident; coordinate federal
plans and programs to provide medical, financial, and other assistance
to victims of terrorist attacks and their families; and
coordinate containment and removal of any biological, chemical,
radiological, explosive, or other hazardous materials, and coordinate
efforts to mitigate the effects of such an attack.
(h) The Director of the OHS will be the
individual primarily responsible for incident management:
coordinating the domestic response
efforts of all departments and agencies in the event of an imminent
terrorist threat and during and in the immediate aftermath
of a terrorist attack within the United States; principal
point of contact for and to the President with respect to coordination
of such efforts.
(i) The Director of the OHS will review
plans and preparations for ensuring the continuity of the Federal
Government in the event of a terrorist attack that threatens the
safety and security of the United States Government or its leadership.
(j) The Office, subject to the direction
of the White House Office of Communications, shall:
coordinate the strategy of the
executive branch for communicating with the public in the event
of a terrorist threat or attack within the United States;
develop programs for educating the public about the nature
of terrorist threats and appropriate precautions and responses.
(k) Legal analysis and legislative proposals.
The Office will:
coordinate a periodic review and
assessment of the legal authorities available to executive departments
and agencies to permit them to perform the functions described
in this order; develop proposals for presidential action
and legislative proposals for submission to the Office of Management
and Budget to enhance the ability of executive departments
and agencies to perform those functions. work with state
and local governments to assess the adequacy of their legal authorities
to permit them to detect, prepare for, prevent, protect against,
and recover from terrorist threats and attacks.
(l) The Director, in conducting a budget
identify programs that contribute
to the Administration's strategy for homeland security;
review and provide advice to the heads of departments and agencies
for such programs; provide advice to the OMB on the level
and use of funding in departments and agencies for homeland security-related
activities; certify to the OMB the funding levels that
the Director believes are necessary and appropriate for the homeland
security-related activities of the executive branch.
Executive Order Establishing the
President's Homeland Security Advisory Council and Senior Advisory
Committees for Homeland Security. (March 21, 2002)
This most recent order gives Director
Ridge the authority to appoint the Executive Director of the President's
Homeland Security Advisory Council (PHSAC) and the Chair and Vice
Chair for each of the Senior Advisory Committees for Homeland
Security (SACs). Director Ridge is authorized to convene meetings
of the Council and Committee to provide advice to the President
through Director Ridge (Section 2: Functions).
Director of the Office of Homeland
Biography of Governor Tom Ridge, Director
of the Office of Homeland Security.
Deputy Director of the Office of Homeland
Security: Admiral Steve Abbot. Deputy Assistant to the President
for Homeland Security: Mark A. Holman. Deputy Assistant to the
President for Legislative Affairs for the Office of Homeland Security:
Becky Halkias. Special Assistant to the President and Executive
Secretary for the Office of Homeland Security: Carl M. Buckholz.
Special Assistant to the President and Public Liaison for the
Office of Homeland Security: Barbara Chaffee. Special Assistant
to the President and Director of Communications for Homeland Security:
Susan Neely. Special Assistant to the President and Adviser for
External Affairs on Homeland Security: Frank Cilluffo. Office
of Homeland Security General Counsel: Ed McNally. Senior Director
of Protection and Prevention: Major General Bruce Lawlor. Senior
Director of Response and Recovery: Michael Byrne. Senior Director
of Border Security: Brian Peterman. Senior Director of Policy
and Plans: Richard Falkenrath. Announcement of appointments and
Approximately 80 staff. The Office was
intended to have a staff of 100.
"Securing the Homeland, Strengthening
the Nation," by President George W. Bush .
In this publication, the President outlines
his vision for the operation of the Office of Homeland Security
in more detail, including budgetary allocations and spending on
Specifically, the report itemizes the
spending under the President's four key budgetary goals that will
be administered by the Office of Homeland Security, namely:
Supporting First Responders Defending
Against Bioterrorism Securing America's Borders Using 21st Century
Technology to Secure the Homeland
Additional Budget Priorities administered
under the Office of Homeland Security include:
Transportation Security Federal Law Enforcement
Citizen Corps Department of Defense and Intelligence Community
Protecting our Critical Infrastructure
Director Ridge's National Strategy for
Homeland Security "will encompass the full range of homeland
security activities and will set priorities among them,"
thus directing the allocation of $10.6 billion of the Federal
Emergency Response Fund, as well as billions of dollars at the
state and local levels. The FY2003 Federal Budget directs $37.7
billion to homeland security.
The Budget for the Executive Office of
the President, for Physical and IT Security in FY2002 was $2 million,
with an additional $58 million in the 2002 Supplement when the
Office of Homeland Security also came within this budgetary category.
The FY2003 request for the Executive Office of the President Physical
and IT Security and the Office of Homeland Security is $48 million.
ACTIONS TAKEN TO DATE
(available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/homeland/archive.html)
October 8, 2001: Governor Ridge Sworn-In
to Lead Homeland Security, President Establishes Office of Homeland
October 18, 2001: Director Ridge, Leaders
Discuss Homeland Security and Anthrax.
October 19, 2001: Director Ridge Briefs
Media at Week's End on Homeland Security Issues and Anthrax.
October 22, 2001: Director Ridge Discusses
October 25, 2001: Gov. Ridge, Medical
Authorities Discuss Anthrax
October 29, 2001: Ridge, Thompson Hold
October 30, 2001: Tuesday's Homeland Security
Briefing: "one of the great challenges I have as the Director
of Homeland Security, in giving you timely and accurate and complete
information with regard to this threat assessment and the threat
November 7, 2001: Wednesday's Homeland
Security Briefing. Reflecting on some of the activity of the Homeland
Security Office, Governor Ridge reported meetings with, among
others, members of Congress, a business roundtable, Governors
and Mayors, NASCAR, the British Ambassador.
November 28, 2001: Governor Ridge Speaks
at Homeland Security and Defense Conference (selected quotes):
"Now, the Defense Department takes
a long-range approach to its budget needs, Homeland Security will
do likewise with a multiyear budget plan, a plan that cuts across
all agencies, a plan that not only addresses present urgent needs
as we build a foundation for national homeland strategy, for security
strategy, but also works to get ahead of the threat. In other
words, we're not preparing to fight the wars of the past, we're
creating a blueprint to win the wars of the future."
"I think one of the challenges that
the Office of Homeland Security has is to make sure that it becomes
a permanent part of how the federal government does business But
I think our long-term best interests will be served if we create
structures and relationships that just become a permanent part
of how we do business and how the government provides service
and security for the long-term.
"One of the more interesting ideas
I received, it was generated from a conversation I had with the
airline industry, happened to involve the voluntary deployment
of biometric cards. Now, I know there are some people that favor
face recognition technology. I happen to believe that whatever
the technology that can be applied with the greatest impact immediately
because this technology is going to change, we will deploy the
best first; and as it changes, let's change our system. Let's
try to be as flexible and as quick to respond in government, as
agencies and organizations and companies and individuals are outside
of government. So I'll let the experts decide what is the best
technology to be deployed."
December 3, 2001: Governor Ridge Holds
Homeland Security Briefing and Issues an Alert, "discerning
specific, credible information and concluding that it gives rise
to a reminder to America that we're still at war."
December 12, 2001: Governor Ridge and
John Manley, then Canada's Minister of Foreign Affairs, sign the
"Smart Border Declaration" with a 30-point action plan
that will help speed and secure the flow of people and goods between
the United States and Canada.
January 23, 2002: Governor Ridge Addresses
U.S. Conference of Mayors: "One of the opportunities the
President has given this office, and I think it's an opportunity
that this country should embrace, as we take a look at ourselves
through the lens of security, we may find that if we look a little
bit beyond just security, we'll find ways to dramatically improve
our communities, our states and our country, as well."
January 24, 2002: President Announces
Substantial Increases in Homeland Security Budget: "Thirty-eight
billion dollars is the total request. Double over 2002. It's the
beginning of a homeland defense initiative which is going to last
throughout my administration."
February 24, 2002: Homeland Security Director
Speaks at the National Governor's Associations Winter Meeting
"In the President's executive order,
he specifically directed this office to design and implement a
national strategy, not a federal one. And by implication, that
means that the federal government, working with the state government,
working with local governments. We need to find a way to be as
seamless as we possibly can."
"But the President has said, take
a look at the borders with our friends in the north in Canada,
and in the south in Mexico, and come up with some smart border
agreements -- not dealing just with security, but dealing with
the enhancement of commerce, dealing with drug interdiction, dealing
"I know that John [Magaw] has said,
no more special treatment for frequent fliers. But I do think
that this might be a great opportunity for us to do some work
with biometrics, and get a trusted flier program."
February 25, 2002: President Bush Meets
with Nation's Governors. Regarding the appointment of Governor
Ridge to the Office of Homeland Security: "And I said, would
you come and be a member of my Cabinet, be sitting at my right
hand there, and design a national strategy for homeland security?
And, fortunately, for the country, he said yes."
March 4, 2002: Gov Ridge Speaks at U.S.
Embassy in Mexico regarding Border Security initiatives
March 8, 2002: Governor Ridge Discusses
Smart Border Plan with the Deputy P.M. of Canada. Proposes expanding
ID card program for pre-screened travelers.
March 12, 2002: Governor Ridge Announces
New Homeland Security Advisory System: "Now, the decision
to name a threat condition will rest with the Attorney General,
after consulting with members of the Homeland Security Council,
after consulting with me. We're asking all federal departments
and agencies make this system work immediately, integrate their
plans into this advisory system, and work with us over the next
135 days to a final system."