excerpts from the book
The Naked Capitalist
a review and commentary on Carroll
Quigley's book Tragedy and Hope
by W. Cleon Skousen
Buccaneer Books, 1970, hardcover
During the past two centuries when the peoples of the world were
gradually winning their political freedom from the dynastic monarchies,
the major banking families of Europe and America were actually
reversing the trend by setting up new dynasties of political control
through the formation of international financial combines.
These banking dynasties had learned that
all governments must have sources of revenue from which to borrow
in times of emergency. They had also learned that by providing
such funds from their own private resources, they could make both
kings and democratic leaders tremendously subservient to their
will. It had proven to be a most effective means of controlling
political appointments and deciding political issues.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p51
In time the [banker families] brought
into their banking network the provincial banking centers, organized
as commercial banks and savings banks, as well as insurance companies,
to form all of these into a single financial system on an international
scale which manipulated the quantity and flow of money so that
they were able to influence, if not control, governments on one
side and industries on the other.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p51-52
The greatest of these dynasties were the
descendants of Meyer Amschel Rothschild (1743-1812) of Frankfort,
whose male descendants, for at least two generations, generally
married first cousins or even nieces. Rothschild's five sons,
established at branches in Vienna, London, Naples, and Paris,
as well as Frankfort, cooperated together in ways which other
international banking dynasties copied but rarely excelled...
The names of some of these [other] banking
families are familiar to all of us and should be more so. They
include Baring, Lazard, Erlanger, Warburg, Schroder, Selingman,
the Speyers, Mirabaud, Mallet, Fould, and above all Rothschild
In studying the global conspiracy it is important to keep in mind
that it was not any particular race or religion but the "passion
for money and power" which has drawn the tycoons of world
finance into a tightly-knit, mutual-aid society.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p52
They remained different from ordinary
bankers in distinctive ways: (1) they were cosmopolitan and international;
(2)they were close to governments and were particularly concerned
with questions of government debts . . . (3) their interests were
almost exclusively in bonds and very rarely in goods... (4) they
were, accordingly, fanatical devotees of deflation . . . (5) they
were almost equally devoted to secrecy and the secret use of financial
influence in political life. These bankers came to be called 'international
bankers' and, more particularly, were known as 'merchant bankers'
in England, 'private bankers' in France, and 'investment bankers'
in the United States.
Reginald McKenna, 1924 - had been British Chancellor of the Exchequer
I am afraid the ordinary citizen will
not like to be told that the bankers can, and do, create money
. ... And they who control the credit of the nation direct the
policy of Government hold in the hollow of their hands the destiny
of the people.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p71-72
This period, 1884-1933, was the period
of financial capitalism in which investment bankers moving into
commercial banking and C insurance on one side and into railroading
and heavy industry on the other were able to mobilize enormous
wealth and wield enormous economic, political and social power.
Popularly known as 'Society,' or '400' they lived a life of dazzling
... The structure of financial controls
created by the tycoons of 'Big Banking' and 'Big Business' in
the period 1880-1933 was of extraordinary complexity, one business
fief being built on another, both being allied with semi-independent
associates, the whole rearing upward into two pinnacles of economic
and financial power, of which one, centered in New York, was headed
by J. P. Morgan and Company, and the other, in Ohio, was headed
by the Rockefeller family. When these two cooperated, as they
generally did, they could influence the economic life of the country
to a large degree and could almost control its political life,
at least on the Federal level.
... In 1930, one corporation (American
Telephone and Telegraph, controlled by Morgan) had greater assets
than the total wealth in twenty-one states of the Union.
The influence of these business leaders
was so great that the Morgan and Rockefeller groups acting together,
or even Morgan acting alone, could have wrecked the economic system
of the country.
dynastic "banker families" in England had established
their monopoly control over finance by setting up the Bank of
England as a privately controlled institution which had the appearance
of an official government institution. Similar centers of financial
control had been set up in France, Germany, Italy and Switzerland.
Many of these European banking families had intermarried or bought
their way into the American banking dynasties so it was inevitable
that eventually the same device for centralized control would
be set up in the United States as that which had worked so well
in various European countries. The formula called for a scheme
which would look like the government was taking over when in reality,
the control would be solidified in the same secret group which
had always held it.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley
Serano S. Pratt in his book entitled,
The Work of Wall Street, p340
When we speak in Wall Street of the 'private
bankers,' we refer to a handful of great banking houses whose
operations are on an international scale and which in the United
States represent the same power that the Rothschilds have so long
possessed in Europe. These houses may, like J. P. Morgan &
Co., and Brown Bros. & Co., be closely allied by partnership
ties to other powerful firms in other cities; and represent here
the great firms and institutions of Europe, just as August Belmont
& Co. have long represented the Rothschilds.
By the turn of the century, the Rockefellers had also joined the
dynastic banking families. John D. Rockefeller had purchased the
Chase Bank and his brother William bought the National City Bank
of New York. The Rockefeller Chase Bank was later merged with
the Warburg's Manhattan Bank to form Chase-Manhattan, the most
powerful financial combine in the world today.
The scheme to set up a privately-controlled
Federal Reserve System was supported by all of these dynastic
It was decided that the Republican Party was too closely connected
j with Wall Street and the only hope of getting a central bank
adopted would be to get the Democrats in power and have a new
bill introduced which would be promoted into popular acceptance
by claiming that it was a measure designed to strip Wall Street
of its power. The Wall Street cadre thereupon set forth to achieve
this in the presidential election of 1912.
At first this looked virtually impossible,
because President William Howard Taft (a Republican who had opposed
the Aldrich Bill) was very popular and seemed a sure-fire bet
for re-election. The picture changed when the former President
Teddy Roosevelt (also a Republican but opposed to Taft) decided
to run on the Progressive Party ticket against Taft. The Democrats
then nominated Woodrow Wilson, making it a three-way race. Suddenly
the central bank promoters saw the opportunity they needed.
As soon as Roosevelt signified that he
would again challenge Taft, the President's defeat was inevitable.
Throughout the three-cornered fight Roosevelt had Munsey and Perkins
constantly at his heels, supplying money, going over his speeches,
bringing people from Wall Street in to help, and, in general,
carrying the entire burden of the campaign against Taft.
Perkins and J. P. Morgan and Company were
the substance of the Progressive Party; everything else was trimming.
The idea was to give Roosevelt enough support to divide Taft's
Republican vote and give Wilson enough support to beat them both.
This strategy worked, and Wilson was elected.
To prevent opponents of Wall Street from identifying the Federal
Reserve Act with the international bankers, a smoke-screen of
opposition was fulminated.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p213
William McAdoo, Woodrow Wilson's Secretary
of the Treasury, in his autobiography
Bankers fought the Federal Reserve legislation
- and ever provision of the Federal Reserve Act - with the tireless
energy of men fighting a forest fire.
It was December 22, 1913, that the Federal Reserve Act passed
the House of Representatives by a vote of 298 to 60 and the Senate
passed it by a majority of 43 to 25.
The operation of the Federal Reserve System is one of the most
interesting and mysterious combines in the country. Since it was
founded in 1913 it has successfully resisted every attempt to
conduct an audit of its affairs. The system consists of 12 "National
Banks" but the only one of any significance is the one in
New York. The New York bank has always been managed by someone
completely congenial to the interests of the international bankers.
It is important to realize that the Federal Reserve System is
not a bona fide Government agency. Technically the stock is owned
by the 12 National Banks which receive a dividend of six percent
each year. Any profits from the System are supposed to be turned
over to the U.S. Treasury, In fact, the President appoints the
seven members of the Federal Reserve Board for fourteen year terms,
but in spite of all this window dressing the Federal Reserve Board
is completely independent in its decisions.
The mammoth and secret operations of the Federal Reserve are therefore
proceeding along the lines which ... the international bankers
were determined to achieve. They intended to use the financial
power of Britain and the United States to force all the major
countries to operate "through central banks free from all
political control, with all questions of international finance
to be settled by agreements by such central banks without interference
The U. S. presently owes more money (most of it to the international
banking institutions) than all the money owed by the rest of the
nations in the world combined.
Those who are appointed to the key positions in the U. S. Federal
Reserve System (where loans are negotiated and interest rates
fixed) occupy possibly the most critically influential spot in
the entire world.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p324
Nothing less than to create a world system
of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political
system of each country and the economy of the world as a whole.
This system was to be controlled in a feudalist fashion by the
central banks of the world acting in concert, by secret agreements
arrived at in frequent private meetings and conferences.... Each
central bank ... sought to dominate government by its ability
to control Treasury loans, to manipulate foreign exchanges, to
influence the level of economic activity in the country, and to
influence cooperative politicians by subsequent economic rewards
in the business world.
In practice the Federal Reserve Bank of
New York became the fountainhead of the system of twelve regional
banks, for New York was the money market of the nation. The other
eleven banks were so many expensive mausoleums erected to salve
the local pride and quell the Jacksonian fears of the Hinterland.
Benjamin Strong ... president of the Bankers Trust Company [Morgan],
was selected as the first Governor of the New York Reserve Bank.
An adept in high finance, Strong for many years manipulated the
country's monetary system at the discretion of directors representing
the leading New York banks. Under Strong the Reserve System, unsuspected
by the nation, was brought into interlocking relations with the
Bank of England and the Bank of France.
In spite of their power, these secret centers of control are seldom
in dictatorial positions where they can actually take direct,
decisive political action; but their financial stranglehold on
the world allows them to influence and manipulate the affairs
of various nations to an amazing degree and to suit their own
There is a growing volume of evidence that the highest centers
of political and economic power have been forcing the entire human
race toward a global, socialist, dictatorial-oriented society.
And what has been most baffling about it has been the fact that
this drift toward dictatorship with its inevitable obliteration
of a thousand years of struggle toward human freedom, is being
plotted, promoted and implemented by the leaders of free nations
and the super-rich of those nations whose positions of affluence
would seem to make them the foremost beneficiaries of the free-enterprise,
property-oriented, open society in which so much progress has
There is a growing volume of evidence that the highest centers
of political and economic power have been forcing the entire human
race toward a global, socialist, dictatorial-oriented society.
... The world hierarchy of the dynastic
super-rich is out to take over the entire planet, doing it with
Socialistic legislation where possible, but having no reluctance
to use Communist revolution where necessary.
The source book of all dictatorships is Plato's Republic.
Plato wanted a ruling class with a powerful
army to keep it in power and a society completely subordinate
to the monolithic authority of the rulers. He also advocated using
whatever force was necessary for the wiping out of all existing
government and social structure so the new rulers could begin
with a "clean canvas" on which to develop the portrait
of their great new society.
The upper dimensions of Plato's "ideal"
society included the elimination of marriage and the family so
that all the women would belong to all the men and all the men
would belong to all the women. Children resulting from these promiscuous
unions would be taken over by the government as soon as they were
weaned and raised anonymously by the state. Plato wanted women
to be required to be equal with men -to fight wars with the men
and perform labor like men. There was to be selective breeding
of men and women under control of the government and children
considered inferior or crippled were to be destroyed. There was
to be a three-level structure of society into fixed classes: the
ruling class, the military class and the worker class. Plato said
the people would be induced to believe a government-indoctrinated
falsehood that people were born with gold, silver or copper in
their souls and the rulers would determine which metal was present
in the soul of each person and assign him to the appropriate class.
Plato admitted all this was a falsehood but said it would facilitate
the administration of affairs by the rulers because it would be
taught to the people as a religious principle. Plato reserved
the full blessings of communism for his ruling class. It would
be there that he felt private property could be eliminated, family
relations communalized, and intellectual energy devoted to determining
what was good for the masses in the lower classes.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p130-131
[John] Ruskin spoke to the Oxford undergraduates
as members of the privileged, ruling class. He told them that
they were the possessors of a magnificent tradition of education,
beauty, rule of law, freedom, decency, and self-discipline but
that this tradition could not be saved, and did not deserve to
be saved, unless it could be extended to the lower classes in
England itself and to the non-English masses throughout the world.
If this precious tradition were not extended to these two great
majorities, the minority of upper-class Englishmen would ultimately
be submerged by these majorities and the tradition lost. To prevent
this, the tradition must be extended to the masses and to empire.
... Ruskin's message had a sensational
impact. His inaugural lecture was copied out in longhand by one
undergraduate, Cecil Rhodes, who kept it with him for thirty years.
Rhodes (1853-1902) feverishly exploited the diamond and goldfields
of South Africa, rose to be prime minister of the Cape Colony
(1890-1896), contributed money to political parties, controlled
parliamentary seats both in England and South Africa, and sought
to win a strip of British territory across Africa from the Cape
of Good Hope to Egypt and to join these two extremes together
with a telegraph line and ultimately with a Cape-to-Cairo Railway.
Rhodes inspired devoted support for his goals from others in South
Africa and in England. With financial support from Lord Rothschild
and Alfred Beit, he was able to monopolize the diamond mines of
South Africa as DeBeers Consolidated Mines and to build up a great
gold mining enterprise as Consolidated Gold Fields.
... These purposes centered on his [Rhodes]
desire to federate the English-speaking peoples and to bring all
the habitable portions of the world under their control. For this
purpose Rhodes left part of his great fortune to found the Rhodes
Scholarships at Oxford in order to spread the English ruling class
tradition throughout the English-speaking world.
... Among Ruskin's most devoted disciples
at Oxford were a group of intimate friends including Arnold Toynbee,
Alfred (later Lord) Miler, Arthur Glazebrook, George (later Sir
George) Parkin, Philip Lyttleton and Henry (later Sir Henry) Birchenough.
These were so moved by Ruskin that they devoted the rest of their
lives to carrying out his ideas. A similar group of Cambridge
men including Reginald Baliol Brett (Lord Esher), Sir John B.
Seeley, Albert (Lord) Grey, and Edmund Garrett were also aroused
by Ruskin's message and devoted their lives to extension of the
British Empire and uplift of England's urban masses as two parts
of one project which they called 'extension of the English-speaking
idea.' They were remarkably successful in these aims because England's
most sensational journalist William T. Stead (1840-1912), an ardent
social reformer and imperialist, brought them into association
with Rhodes. This association was formally established on February
5, 1891, when Rhodes and Stead organized a secret society of which
Rhodes had been dreaming for sixteen years.
... In this secret society Rhodes was
to be leader; Stead, Brett (Lord Esher), and Miler were to form
an executive committee; Arthur (Lord) Balfour, (Sir) Harry Johnston,
Lord Rothschild, Albert (Lord) Grey, and others were listed as
potential members of a 'Circle of Initiates'; while there was
to be an outer circle known as the 'Association of Helpers' (later
organized by Milner as the Round Table Organization).
... As governor-general and high commissioner
of South Africa the period 1897-1905, Miler recruited a group
of young men, chiefly from oxford and from Toynbee Hall, to assist
him in organizing his administration. Through his influence these
men were able to win influential posts in government and international
finance and became C the dominant influence in British imperial
and foreign affairs up to 1939. Under Milner in South Africa,
they were known as Milner's kindergarten until 1910. In 1909-1913
they organized semi-secret groups, known as Round Table Groups,
in the chief British dependencies and in the United States.
... Similar Institutes of International
Affairs were established in the chief British dominions and in
the United States (where it is known as the Council on Foreign
Relations) in the period 1919-1927.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p133
The power and influence of this Rhodes-Miler
group in British imperial affairs and in foreign policy since
1889, although not widely recognized, can hardly be exaggerated.
We might mention as an example that this group dominated The Times
from 1890 to 1912 and has controlled it completely since 1912
(except for the years 1919-1922). Because The Times has been owned
by the Astor family since 1922, this Rhodes-Milner group was sometimes
spoken of as the 'Cliveden Set,' named after the Astor country
house where they sometimes assembled. Numerous other papers and
journals have been under the control or influence of this group
... From 1884 to about 1915 the members
of this group worked valiantly to extend the British Empire and
to organize it in a federal system. They were constantly harping
on the lessons to be learned from the failure of the American
Revolution and the success of the Canadian federation of 1867,
and hoped to federate the various parts of the empire as seemed
feasible, then confederate the whole of it, with the United Kingdom
into a single organization. They also hoped to bring the United
States into this organization to whatever degree was possible.
Stead was able to get Rhodes to accept, in principle, a solution
which might have made Washington the capital of the whole organization
or allow parts of the empire to become states of the American
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p950-951
The American branch of this organization
(sometimes called the 'Eastern Establishment') has played a very
significant role in the history of the United States in the last
generation . . . . By 1915 Round Table groups existed in seven
countries, including England, South Africa, Canada, Australia,
New Zealand, India, and a rather loosely organized group in the
United States (George Louis Beer, Walter Lippmann, Frank Aydelotte,
Whitney Shepardson, Thomas W. Lamont, Jerome D. Greene, Erwin
D. Canham of the Christian Science Monitor, and others).
... Money for the widely ramified activities
of this organization came originally from the associates and followers
of Cecil Rhodes, chiefly from the Rhodes Trust itself, and from
wealthy associates such as the Beit Brothers, from Sir Abe Bailey,
and (after 1915) from the Astor family. Since 1925 there have
been substantial contributions from the individuals and from foundations,
and firms associated with other international banking fraternity,
especially the Carnegie United Kingdom Trust, and other organizations
associated with J. P. Morgan, the Rockefeller and Whitney families,
and the associates of Lazard Brothers and of Morgan, Grenfell,
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p951-952
At the end of the war of 1914 [WWI] became
clear that the organization of this system had to be greatly extended.
Once again the task was entrusted to Lionel Curtis who established,
in England and each dominion, a front organization to the existing
local Round Table Group. This front organization, called the Royal
Institute of International Affairs, had as its nucleus in each
area the existing submerged Round Table Group. In New York it
was known as the Council on Foreign Relations, and was a front
for J. P. Morgan and Company in association with the very small
American Round Table Group.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p938-939
The best example of this alliance of Wall
Street and Left-wing publication was The New Republic.
... The original purpose for establishing
the paper [The New Republic] was to provide an outlet for the
progressive Left and to guide it quietly in an Anglophile direction.
... This latter task was entrusted to
a young man, only four years out of Harvard, but already a member
of the mysterious Round Table Group, which has played a major
role in directing England's foreign policy since its formal establishment
in 1909. This new recruit, Walter Lippmann, has been from 1914
to the present, the authentic spokesman in American journalism
for the Establishments on both sides of the Atlantic in international
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p937
This group, which in the United States,
was completely dominated by J. P. Morgan and Company from the
1880's to the 1930's was cosmopolitan, Anglophile, internationalist,
Ivy League, eastern seaboard, high Episcopalian, and European-culture
conscious. Their connection with the Ivy League colleges rested
on the fact that the large endowments of these institutions required
constant consultation with the financiers of Wall Street ....
As a consequence of these influences, as late as the 1930's, J.
P. Morgan and his associates were the most significant figures
in policy making at Harvard, Columbia, and to a lesser extent
Yale, while the Whitneys were significant at Yale, and the Prudential
Insurance Company (through Edward D. Duffield) dominated Princeton.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p953
The American Branch of this 'English Establishment'
exerted much of its influence through five American newspapers.
(The New York Times, New York Herald Tribune, Christian Science
Monitor, the ,. Washington Post, and the Boston Evening Transcript).
In fact, the editor of the Christian Science Monitor was the chief
American correspondent (anonymously) of The Round Table.
... There grew up in the twentieth century
a power structure between London and New York which penetrated
deeply into university life, the press, and the practice of foreign
policy. In England the center was the Round Table Group, while
in the United States it was J. P. Morgan and Company or its local
ranches in Boston, Philadelphia, and Cleveland.
Dr. [Carroll] Quigley bluntly confesses that International Bankers
who had set out to remake the world were perfectly confident that
they could use their money to acquire the cooperation and eventual
control of the Communist-Socialist conspiratorial groups. In fact,
John Ruskin of Oxford had persuaded the original Rhodes-Milner
Round Table Groups that the way to federate the world was along
socialistic lines, i.e., by having all property, industry, agriculture,
communications, transportation, education and political affairs
in the hands of a small cadre of financially-controlled political
leaders who would organize the world and its peoples in a way
which would compel everyone to do what was good for the new, world-society.
It may seem somewhat contradictory that
the very people whom Marx identified as the epitome of "Capitalism"
should be conspiring with the followers of Marx to overthrow traditional
Capitalism and replace it with Socialism. But the record supports
the Quigley contention that this is precisely what has been happening.
The reason is rather simple.
Power from any source tends to create
an appetite for additional power. Power coming from wealth tends
to create an appetite for political power and visa versa. It was
almost inevitable that the I super-rich would one day aspire to
control not only their own wealth, but the wealth of the whole
world. To achieve this, they were perfectly willing to feed the
ambitions of the power-hungry political conspirators who were
committed to the overthrow of all existing governments and the
establishments of a central world-wide dictatorship along socialist
This, of course, was a risky business
for the Anglo-American secret society. The super-rich were gambling
on the expectation that when the violence and reconstruction had
been completed by the political conspirators, the super-rich would
then take over (like Plato's philosopher-kings, or ruling class),
to guide mankind hopefully and compulsively into a whole new era
of universal peace and universal prosperity.
... The master-planners have attempted
to control the global conspiratorial groups by feeding them vast
quantities of money for their revolutionary work and then financing
their opposition if they seemed to be getting out of control.
This policy has required the leaders of London and Wall Street
to deliberately align themselves with dictatorial forces which
have committed crimes against humanity in volume and severity
unprecedented in history. It has required them to finance and
support international intrigue by the most ruthless kind of political
psychopaths. Studies show that many of these totalitarian political
demagogues never would have come to power without the financial
support of the super-rich. Studies further show that in many countries
where the conspirators have taken over, the people would have
risen up and overthrown them years ago if it had not been for
the most sinister kind of depraved maneuvering behind the scenes
by the agents of these wealthy master planners.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p954
The chief aims of this elaborate, semi-secret
organization were largely commendable: to coordinate the international
activities and outlooks of the English-speaking world into one
(which would largely, , it is true, be that of the London group);
to work to maintain peace; f to help backward, colonial, and underdeveloped
areas to advance J toward stability, law and order, and prosperity.
The members of the dynastic banking families had been financing
the Russian-oriented revolutionists for many years. Trotsky, in
his biography, refers to some of these loans from British financiers
going back as far as 1907. By 1917 the major subsidies for the
revolution were being arranged by Sir George Buchanan and Lord
Alfred Miler (of the Morgan-Rothschild-Rhodes confederacy). Milner
... was the founder of England's secret "Round Table"
group which started the Royal Institute for International Affairs
in England and the Council on Foreign Relations in the United
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p938
More than fifty years ago the Morgan firm
decided to infiltrate the Left-wing political movements in the
United States. This was relatively easy to do, since these groups
were starved for funds and eager for a voice to reach the people.
Wall Street supplied both. The purpose was not to destroy, dominate,
or take over but was really threefold: (1) to keep informed about
the thinking of Left-wing or liberal groups; (2) to provide them
with a mouthpiece so that they could 'blow off steam,' and (3)
to have a final veto on their publicity and possibly on their
actions, if they ever went 'radical.' There was nothing really
new about this decision, since other financiers had talked about
and even attempted it earlier.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p945
"To [JP] Morgan all political parties
were simply organizations to be used, and the firm always was
careful to keep a foot in all camps. Morgan himself, Dwight Morrow,
and other partners were allied with the Republicans; Russell C.
Leffingwell was allied with the Democrats. Grayson Murphy was
allied with the extreme Right; and Thomas W. Lamont was allied
with the Left.
Tragedy and Hope, Carroll Quigley, p950
There does exist, and has existed for
a generation, an international Anglophile network which operates,
to some extent, in the way the radical right believes the communists
act. In fact, this network which we may identify as The round
Table Groups, has no aversion to cooperating with the Communists,
or any other groups, and frequently does so.
The Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)
The Secret Society set up by Cecil Rhodes
in conjunction with Rothschild, Morgan, Carnegie, Rockefeller,
et al., was directed by a small highly secret Round Table Group.
This secret group then set up fronts for the purposes of carrying
forward its conspiratorial schemes. The United States front was
called the Council on Foreign Relations.
Christian Science Monitor article, September 1, 1961
Its [Council on Foreign Relations (CFR)]
roster. . . contains names distinguished in the field of diplomacy,
government, business, finance, science, labor, journalism, law
and education. What united so wide-ranging and disparate a membership
is a passionate concern for the direction of American foreign
Christian Science Monitor article, September 1, 1961
The CFR roster has a formal membership
of 1,400 elite personalities carefully selected for their usefulness
from all of the nation's key professions. These are screened and
trained for decision-making positions in the Federal Government.
The article states, "Almost half of the Council members have
been invited to assume official government positions or to act
as consultants at one time or another."
Harper's magazine, July, 1958, article "School For Statesmen,"
by CFR member, Joseph Kraft.
It [CFR} has been the seat of ... basic
government decisions, has set the context for many more, and has
repeatedly served as a recruiting ground for ranking officials.
CFR appointments made by President Nixon:
Henry A. Kissinger, Chief Foreign Policy
Henry Cabot Lodge, Chief Negotiator in
Charles Yost, Ambassador to the United
Arthur Burns, Chairman of Federal Reserve
George Ball, Foreign Policy Consultant
Robert Murphy, special consultant on international
Richard P. Pederson, Exec. Sec., State
Alan Pifer, consultant to the President
on Educational Finance
Dr. Paul McCracken, chief economic aid
Ellsworth Bunker, U. S. Ambassador to
General Andrew J. Goodpaster, chief military
Dr. Glenn T. Seaborg, Chairman, Atomic
Joseph J. Sisco, Assistant Secretary of
State for the Middle East and South Asia
Jacob Beam, Ambassador to the Soviet Union
Gerald Smith, Director of the Arms Control
and Disarmament Agency
Dr. Quigley may be entirely correct in his charge that the CFR
and the Global Establishment have gained such a hold on the elective
process in the United States that no matter which political party
goes into power, the winner is beholden to those powers to a significant
The Bilderberg Group
[The Bilderberg Group conferences] ...
are held each year as a international master planning conclave.
They are secret and attendance is restricted to invited "guests."
These turn out to be about 100 me from the top inner circle representing
their four major dimensions of power: the international banking
dynasties, their corporations involved in vast, international
enterprises, the American tax-exempt 1 foundations, and the establishment
representatives who have gained high offices in government, especially
the United States government.
... Prince Bernhard convened the first
of these conferences during May, 1954, at the Bilderberg Hotel
in Oosterbeek, Netherlands, Ever since then the group has been
called The Bilderberg Group. However, they meet at various places.
The 1957 meeting was held off the coast of Georgia on St. Simons
Island, not far from Jekyl Island where a secret meeting was held
in 1908 to set up the format for the U.S. Federal Reserve Bank.
The 1964 meetings were at Williamsburg, Va. They have also met
in Canada, Turkey, Germany, England and France. All of their meetings
are closed. No secretary takes notes of the speeches. No reporters
sit in on the debates. And when Prince Bernhard brings down the
gavel for the close of the conference, no handouts, policy statements
or copies of their adopted resolutions are given to the press.
The conferees depart to the four corners of the earth to carry
out their adopted goals but the world is never given the slightest
hint as to what has been decided.
The only press representatives in attendance have been trusted
Establishment personalities such , as Arthur Hays Sulzberger,
president and publisher of the New York Times...
Typical individuals who frequent these conferences include:
Joseph E. Johnson, President of the Carnegie
Endowment for International Peace (which finances most of these
Dr. Joseph H. Retinger, Communist Poland's
Charge d'Affaires in Russia who helped Prince Bernhard set up
the first conference in 1954
McGeorge Bundy, former Harvard professor
who became a presidential advisor and was then made President
of the Ford Foundation
George W. Ball, former Under Secretary
Christian Herter, former Secretary of
Dean Acheson, former Secretary of State
Dean Rusk, former Secretary of State and
former President of the Rockefeller Foundation
Lester Pearson, former Prime Minister
Shepard Stone, Director of International
Affairs for the Ford Foundation
Pierre-Paul Schweitzer, Managing Director
of the United Nations International Monetary Fund
Dirk U. Stikker, Secretary General of
Gardner Cowles, editor in chief and publisher
of Look magazine and the Cowles Newspaper chain
J. William Fulbright, U.S. Senator of
Paul G. Hoffman, U. S. chief of foreign
George F. Kennan, former ambassador to
the Soviet Union
Paul H. Nitze, who served as Secretary
of the Navy
Fritz Berg, Chairman, Federation of German
Hakon Christianson, Chairman of the Board,
East Asiatic Company of Denmark
Pierre Commin, Secretary of the French
Thomas E. Dewey, former Governor of New
York and candidate for President
Jacob Javits, Republican Senator from
H. J. Heinz II, President of the H. J.
Jeane de la Garde, French Ambassador to
M. Nun Birgi, Minister of Foreign Affairs,
Imbriani Longo, Director-General, Banco
Nazionale del Lavoro, of Italy
David J. McDonald, President United Steelworkers
Alex W. Menne, President Association of
German Chemical industries
Don K. Price, Russian Institute, Columbia
J. L. S. Steele, Chairman, British International
Chamber of Commerce
Paul van Zeeland, former Prime Minister
John J. McCloy, former President of the
Henry Kissinger, advisor to president
Nixon, former member of the staff of CFR and an officer of the
New World Order