Alternatives I: Prevention
excerpted from the book
Crime and Punishment in America
Why solutions to America's
most stubborn social crisis have not worked - and what will
by Elliott Currie
Henry Holt, 1998, paper
Given what we've learned about crime prevention in recent years,
four priorities seem especially critical: preventing child abuse
and neglect, enhancing children's intellectual and social development,
providing support and guidance to vulnerable adolescents, and
working intensively with juvenile offenders.
Child abuse is itself among the worst and most tragic of violent
crimes. Nationwide, it results directly in up to 5,000 deaths
per year, 18,000 permanent, severe disabilities, and 150,000 serious
injuries. It is the fourth leading cause of death for American
children aged one to four and second for black children that age.
The second priority in crime prevention is to expand and enhance
the early intervention for children at risk of impaired cognitive
development, behavior problems, and early failure in school. Once
again, the "why" is not mysterious. The link between
these troubles and later delinquency is depressingly consistent.
Because these problems often show up very early in a child's life,
many observers leap to the conclusion that some children are simply
fated to fail. But the success of some of the best early-childhood
programs gives a very different, and far more hopeful, picture.
By far the best known of these efforts
is the Perry Preschool program-a legacy of the Great Society,
begun during the early 1960s in a low-income, mainly black neighborhood
in Ypsilanti, Michigan. Like most early-intervention programs,
Perry was actually quite modest. Poor children aged three and
four were enrolled in preschool for two and a half hours a day.
In addition, their teachers visited the children and their mothers
at home once a week, for about an hour and a half. Most of the
children stayed in the program for two school years, a few for
just one. The preschool curriculum was distinguished by its commitment
to an "active learning approach, based heavily on the work
of Jean Piaget. Children were not simply taught a predetermined
body of material but were encouraged to plan their own activities
and to explore the meaning of those activities with their teachers.
This strategy- which was quite innovative at the time-was encouraged
by a very low pupil-teacher ratio of about five to one.
The Perry project was also distinctive
in the care with which the experiment was designed and evaluated.
The project randomly assigned 123 neighborhood children to the
program group or to a control group that did not attend the program.
Dogged efforts to keep track of these children as they grew up
-- including interviewing some in prison and dodging neighborhood
gunfire to maintain contact with others-provided an extraordinarily
complete record of the youngsters' progress over time. As of this
writing, the evaluation has followed both groups until the youngest
of the children were twenty-seven years old. The results are impressive;
the Perry students were far more likely to be literate, off welfare,
working and earning a decent living. They were only one-fifth
as likely as the carefully matched control group to have become
chronic criminal offenders (defined as having been arrested five
or more times) and only about one-fourth as likely to have been
arrested for drug related crimes.
The Perry program's results have been
widely disseminated. But what makes them particularly striking
is that they were achieved with such modest means, and with unusually
high-risk children in a severely disadvantaged community.
Two profound limitations on early intervention as it is now practiced
in the United States should make us especially wary of overpromising.
... unlike many other advanced societies,
we cannot link our . early-intervention programs to national-level
health care or family support systems that would allow us to provide
services to children and families reliably throughout the course
of childhood. (Hawaii which has a statewide health insurance system,
represents a partial exception to this rule.) The absence of those
systems means that our programs for children and families are
usually unstable and short term; most, indeed, never get beyond
the "pilot program" stage. It means that there is rarely
any continuity between what we do for children in the preschool
years and what, if anything, we do for them once they are old
enough to enter regular schools-which helps to explain the tendency
in even some of the best intervention programs for results to
"fade" over time. It also means that the most effective
programs must spend a great deal of their time and energy brokering
basic support services that ought to be provided routinely through
national policies. Above all, it means that most families that
could benefit from such programs will never get them.
The situation is very different in many
European countries, where home visiting is an integral part of
national systems of health care accessible to all families. The
specifics of home visiting-how often children are visited after
birth, for example, and whether the visitors are public-health
nurses, social workers, or paraprofessionals-vary among these
countries. But in all of them, as Sheila Kamerman and Alfred J.
Kahn note, home visiting "links the family, as needed, to
social services, income maintenance, housing, and other government
programs." Home-visiting programs are universal, popular,
and "generously supported." In Denmark, for example,
home visiting is backed by a nationwide network of community maternal-
and child-health clinics whose services are available to all families
as a matter of right. Preschool programs, similarly, are widely
available in most advanced European and Asian countries: close
to 100 percent of French children are enrolled in such programs,
as are more than 90 percent of children in Hong Kong and Japan.
In most other developed countries, in short, systematic early
intervention is one feature of a broader commitment to national
health care and family policies. Without that commitment, we cannot
make the most of the potential of preschool programs or home visiting
in the United States.
A second, related limitation on early
intervention is perhaps even more basic. In the United States,
we have traditionally overestimated the capacity of essentially
educational strategies to overcome the effects of endemic poverty,
community disorganization, and economic insecurity. Too often,
I suspect, we're tempted to overstate the potential of early intervention
because it seems to offer a relatively painless-and indeed costless-way
of solving the problems that beset poor children and their parents.
But though the best early-intervention programs have been remarkably
successful in improving lives, their effects are often overwhelmed
by the social and economic deterioration that surrounds them.
One of the earliest programs for at-risk youth to show strong
evidence of success was the federal Job Corps, an enduring legacy
of the 1960s that, along with Head Start, is one of the only preventive
programs that has survived, with significant funding, year after
year. What set Job Corps apart from less successful programs was
its strong emphasis on intensive skill training, coupled with
a variety of supportive services for its participants. Evaluations
showed that Job Corps significantly reduced violent crime among
its graduates, and the savings thus achieved more than repaid
the costs of the program.
Whether they are aimed at families with very young children, at
impoverished high schoolers, or at teenaged offenders ... successful
efforts ... have a number of things in common. They are preventive,
rather than simply reactive; they emphasize building the strengths
and capabilities of young people and their families, rather than
simply treating their deficiencies or preaching virtue at them;
they encourage productivity and responsibility; and they tackle
concrete, real-world problems that undercut life chances and breed
hostility, stress, and demoralization. Most of the successful
programs are comprehensive-or what some would call "ecological":
they address the multiple problems of children, youths, or families
wherever they arise-in the family, the community, the health-care
and school systems, and the housing and labor markets. They tend,
insofar as possible, to deal with the roots of those problems,
rather than just the symptoms, and they are typically inspired
by some of the best thinking we have on the causes of violent
crime, delinquency, or child maltreatment. Many of the best programs
are also quite modest-and often inexpensive. Others are more intensive,
and therefore cost more. But all of them pass the test of cost-effectiveness-especially
when compared to the usual alternative of waiting for damaged
children to become criminal adults, and then putting them in jail
Though this kind of calculation is inevitably
somewhat speculative, the comparative figures are often stunning.
The Quantum Opportunity Program for high-risk teenagers costs
about $2,500 a year per participant; a year in one of the prisons
run by the California Youth Authority costs about $32,O00. The
Rand Corporation, a research organization not known for its radicalism,
has calculated that some prevention programs-including parent
training and early intervention with juvenile offenders-can "pay
off" at a rate four or five times greater than California's
But it is important to remember that there
are no silver bullets-no magic program, whether aimed at preschoolers
or adolescents, that could eliminate violence if we just "replicated"
it often enough. Home-visiting programs have been described by
a supporter as "necessary but not sufficient," and that
can be said of all of these successful intervention efforts, singly
and in combination. It is enormously heartening that, even within
the current American reality of mass poverty, community disintegration,
and economic insecurity, there is much we can do to increase the
chances that children will grow up compassionate rather than predatory,
loved rather than abused; that teens who get into trouble will
be helped back onto a better path. But children and families live
in the context of a larger economy and society that, all too often,
can nullify even the best efforts to help those at risk. That
doesn't mean such efforts are useless; it does mean that they
must be linked to an attack on the larger forces that put children
and their parents at risk in the first place. It is nowadays often
said that either we don't know how to do this or that it would
make little difference to the crime rate even if we did. But nowhere
does the conservative argument depart more sharply from reality.
and Punishment in America