Where the People Voted Against
by Eduardo Galeano
The Progressive, January 2005
A few days before the election of the
President of the planet in North America, in South America elections
and a plebiscite were held in a little-known, almost secret country
called Uruguay. In these elections, for the first time in the
country's history, the left won. And in the plebiscite, for the
first time in world history, the privatization of water was rejected
by popular vote, asserting that water is the right of all people.
* * *
The movement headed by President-elect
Tabare Vazquez ended the monopoly of the two traditional parties--the
Blanco and the Colorado parties--which governed Uruguay since
the creation of the universe.
And after each election you would hear
this exclamation: ''I thought that we Blancos won but it turns
out we Colorados did"--or the other way around. Out of opportunism,
yes, but also because after so many years of ruling together,
the two parties had fused into one, disguised as two.
Tired of being cheated, this time the
people made use of that little-used instrument, common sense.
The people asked, Why do they promise change yet ask us to chose
between the same and the same? Why didn't they make any of these
changes in the eternity they have been in power?
Never had the abyss between the real country
and electioneering rhetoric been so evident. In the real country,
badly wounded, where the only growth is in the number of emigrants
and beggars, the majority chose to cover their ears to block out
the oratory of these Martians competing for the government of
Jupiter with highfalutin words imported from the moon.
* * *
About thirty or so years ago, the Broad
Front (Frente Amplio) sprouted on these southern plains. ''Brother,
don't leave,'' the new movement implored. ''There is hope.'' But
crisis moved faster than hope, and the hemorrhaging of the country's
youth accelerated. The dream of a Switzerland of the Americas
ended, and the nightmare of violence and poverty began, culminating
in a military dictatorship that converted Uruguay into a vast
Afterward, when democracy was restored,
the dominant politicians destroyed the little that remained of
the system of production and converted Uruguay into a giant bank.
And as is often the case when it is assaulted by bankers, the
bank went bust and Uruguay found itself emptied of people and
filled with debt.
In all these years of disaster after disaster,
we lost a multitude. And as if in a bad joke, not content to just
force its youth from the country, this sclerotic system also prohibits
them from voting-one of a small number of countries that do so.
It seems inexplicable, but there is an explanation: Who would
these emigrants vote for? The owners of the country suspect the
worst, and with good reason.
In the final act of his campaign, the
vice presidential candidate for the Colorado Party announced that
if the left won the elections, all Uruguayans would have to dress
identically, like the Chinese under Mao.
He was one of the many involuntary publicity
agents of the victorious left. Not even the most tireless electoral
workers did as much for this victory as the tribunes of the homeland
who alerted the population to the imminent danger if democracy
were to fall to the tyrannical enemies of freedom and the terrorists,
kidnappers, and assassins who oppose democracy. Their attacks
were extremely efficient: The more they denounced the devils,
the more people voted for hell.
Largely thanks to these heralds of the
apocalypse, the left won by an absolute majority, without a runoff.
The people voted against fear.
* * *
The plebiscite on water was also a victory
against fear. Uruguayans were bombarded with extortion, threats,
and lies: A vote against privatizing water will condemn you to
a future of sewage-filled wells and putrid ponds.
As in the elections, in the plebiscite
common sense triumphed. In their vote, the people asserted that
water, a scarce and finite natural resource, must be a right of
all people and not a privilege for those who can pay for it. The
people also showed they know that sooner rather than later, in
a thirsty world, the reserves of fresh water will be as, or more,
coveted than oil reserves. Countries that are poor but rich in
water must learn to defend themselves. More than five centuries
have passed since Columbus. How long can we go on trading gold
for glass beads?
Wouldn't it be worthwhile for other countries
to put the issue of water to a popular vote? In a democracy, a
true democracy, who should decide? The World Bank, or the citizens
of each country? Do democratic rights exist for real, or are they
just the icing on a poisoned cake?
In 1992, Uruguay was the only country
in the world to put the privatization of public companies to a
popular vote: 72 percent opposed. Wouldn't it be democratic to
do the same in every country?
* * *
For centuries, Latin Americans have been
trained in impotence. A pedagogy passed down from the colonial
times, taught by violent soldiers, timorous teachers, and frail
fatalists, has rooted in our souls the belief that reality is
untouchable and that all we can do is swallow in silence the woes
each day brings.
The Uruguay of other days was the exception.
That Uruguay instituted free public education before England,
women's suffrage before France, the eight-hour workday before
the United States, and divorce before Spain-seventy years before
Spain, to be exact.
Now we are trying to revive this creative
energy and would do well to recall that the Uruguay of that sunny
period was the child of audacity, and not fear.
* * *
It will not be easy. Implacable reality
will promptly remind us of the inevitable distance between the
desired and the possible. The left is coming to power in a shattered
country, which, in the distant past, was at the vanguard of universal
progress but today is one of the furthest behind, in debt up to
its ears and subjected to the international financial dictatorship,
which doesn't vote but simply vetoes.
Today, we have very little maneuvering
room. But what is usually difficult, even impossible, can be imagined
and even achieved if we join together with neighboring countries,
just as we have joined together with our neighbors.
* * *
In the Broad Front's very first demonstration,
which flooded the streets with people, someone shouted, half-joyous,
half-scared, ''Let's dare to win.''
Thirty or so years later, it came true.
The country is unrecognizable. Uruguayans,
so unbelieving that even nihilism was beyond them, have started
to believe, and with fervor. And today this melancholic and subdued
people, who at first glance might be Argentineans on valium, are
dancing on air.
The winners have a tremendous burden of
responsibility. This rebirth of faith and revival of happiness
must be watched over carefully. We should recall every day how
right Carlos Quijano was when he said that sins against hope are
the only sins beyond forgiveness and redemption.
Eduardo Galeano, a Uruguayan writer and
novelist, is the author of "The Open Veins of Latin America,"
"Memory of Fire," and "Soccer in Sun and Shadow."
This article is published with permission of the IPS Columnist